Effects of Vertebral Column Distraction on Transcranial Electrical Stimulation-Motor Evoked Potential and Histology of the Spinal Cord in a Porcine Model

Jae Hyuk Yang, Seung-Woo Suh, Hitesh N. Modi, Easwar T. Ramani, Jae-Young Hong, Jin Ho Hwang, Woon Yong Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Spinal cord injury can occur following surgical procedures for correction of scoliosis and kyphosis, as these procedures produce lengthening of the vertebral column. The objective of this study was to cause spinal cord injury by vertebral column distraction and evaluate the histological changes in the spinal cord in relationship to the pattern of recovery from the spinal cord injury. Methods: Global osteotomy of all three spinal columns was performed on the ninth thoracic vertebra of sixteen pigs. The osteotomized vertebra was distracted until transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potential (TES-MEP) signals disappeared or decreased by >80% compared with the baseline amplitude; this was defined as spinal cord injury. The distraction distance at which spinal cord injury occurred was measured, the distraction was released, and the TES-MEP recovery pattern was observed. A wake-up test was performed, two days of observations were made, and histological changes were evaluated in relationship to the recovery pattern. Results: Spinal cord injury developed at a distraction distance of 20.2 ± 4.7 mm, equivalent to 3.6% of the thoracolumbar spinal length, and the distraction distance was correlated with the thoracolumbar spinal length (r = 0.632, p = 0.009). No animals exhibited complete recovery according to TES-MEP testing, eleven exhibited incomplete recovery, and five exhibited no recovery. During the two days of observation, all eleven animals with incomplete recovery showed positive responses to sensory and motor tests, whereas none of the five animals with no recovery had positive responses. On histological evaluation, three animals that exhibited no recovery all showed complete severance of nerve fibers (axotomy), whereas six animals that exhibited incomplete recovery all showed partial white-matter injury. Conclusions: Parallel distraction of approximately 3.6% of the thoracolumbar length after global osteotomy resulted in spinal cord injury and histological evidence of spinal cord damage. The pattern of recovery from the spinal cord injury after release of the distraction was consistent with the degree of axonal damage. Axotomy was observed in animals that exhibited no recovery on TES-MEP, and only hemorrhagic changes in the white matter were observed in animals that exhibited incomplete recovery. Clinical Relevance: The information on TES-MEP changes and histological responses associated with distraction in an animal model may be useful in corrective surgery for spinal deformity in humans. COPYRIGHT

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)835-842
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A
Volume95
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 May 1

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Motor Evoked Potentials
Spinal Cord Injuries
Spinal Cord
Histology
Spine
Swine
Axotomy
Osteotomy
Thoracic Vertebrae
Kyphosis
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Scoliosis
Nerve Fibers
Animal Models
Observation
Wounds and Injuries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Effects of Vertebral Column Distraction on Transcranial Electrical Stimulation-Motor Evoked Potential and Histology of the Spinal Cord in a Porcine Model. / Yang, Jae Hyuk; Suh, Seung-Woo; Modi, Hitesh N.; Ramani, Easwar T.; Hong, Jae-Young; Hwang, Jin Ho; Jung, Woon Yong.

In: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A, Vol. 95, No. 9, 01.05.2013, p. 835-842.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Spinal cord injury can occur following surgical procedures for correction of scoliosis and kyphosis, as these procedures produce lengthening of the vertebral column. The objective of this study was to cause spinal cord injury by vertebral column distraction and evaluate the histological changes in the spinal cord in relationship to the pattern of recovery from the spinal cord injury. Methods: Global osteotomy of all three spinal columns was performed on the ninth thoracic vertebra of sixteen pigs. The osteotomized vertebra was distracted until transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potential (TES-MEP) signals disappeared or decreased by >80{\%} compared with the baseline amplitude; this was defined as spinal cord injury. The distraction distance at which spinal cord injury occurred was measured, the distraction was released, and the TES-MEP recovery pattern was observed. A wake-up test was performed, two days of observations were made, and histological changes were evaluated in relationship to the recovery pattern. Results: Spinal cord injury developed at a distraction distance of 20.2 ± 4.7 mm, equivalent to 3.6{\%} of the thoracolumbar spinal length, and the distraction distance was correlated with the thoracolumbar spinal length (r = 0.632, p = 0.009). No animals exhibited complete recovery according to TES-MEP testing, eleven exhibited incomplete recovery, and five exhibited no recovery. During the two days of observation, all eleven animals with incomplete recovery showed positive responses to sensory and motor tests, whereas none of the five animals with no recovery had positive responses. On histological evaluation, three animals that exhibited no recovery all showed complete severance of nerve fibers (axotomy), whereas six animals that exhibited incomplete recovery all showed partial white-matter injury. Conclusions: Parallel distraction of approximately 3.6{\%} of the thoracolumbar length after global osteotomy resulted in spinal cord injury and histological evidence of spinal cord damage. The pattern of recovery from the spinal cord injury after release of the distraction was consistent with the degree of axonal damage. Axotomy was observed in animals that exhibited no recovery on TES-MEP, and only hemorrhagic changes in the white matter were observed in animals that exhibited incomplete recovery. Clinical Relevance: The information on TES-MEP changes and histological responses associated with distraction in an animal model may be useful in corrective surgery for spinal deformity in humans. COPYRIGHT",
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AU - Modi, Hitesh N.

AU - Ramani, Easwar T.

AU - Hong, Jae-Young

AU - Hwang, Jin Ho

AU - Jung, Woon Yong

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N2 - Background: Spinal cord injury can occur following surgical procedures for correction of scoliosis and kyphosis, as these procedures produce lengthening of the vertebral column. The objective of this study was to cause spinal cord injury by vertebral column distraction and evaluate the histological changes in the spinal cord in relationship to the pattern of recovery from the spinal cord injury. Methods: Global osteotomy of all three spinal columns was performed on the ninth thoracic vertebra of sixteen pigs. The osteotomized vertebra was distracted until transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potential (TES-MEP) signals disappeared or decreased by >80% compared with the baseline amplitude; this was defined as spinal cord injury. The distraction distance at which spinal cord injury occurred was measured, the distraction was released, and the TES-MEP recovery pattern was observed. A wake-up test was performed, two days of observations were made, and histological changes were evaluated in relationship to the recovery pattern. Results: Spinal cord injury developed at a distraction distance of 20.2 ± 4.7 mm, equivalent to 3.6% of the thoracolumbar spinal length, and the distraction distance was correlated with the thoracolumbar spinal length (r = 0.632, p = 0.009). No animals exhibited complete recovery according to TES-MEP testing, eleven exhibited incomplete recovery, and five exhibited no recovery. During the two days of observation, all eleven animals with incomplete recovery showed positive responses to sensory and motor tests, whereas none of the five animals with no recovery had positive responses. On histological evaluation, three animals that exhibited no recovery all showed complete severance of nerve fibers (axotomy), whereas six animals that exhibited incomplete recovery all showed partial white-matter injury. Conclusions: Parallel distraction of approximately 3.6% of the thoracolumbar length after global osteotomy resulted in spinal cord injury and histological evidence of spinal cord damage. The pattern of recovery from the spinal cord injury after release of the distraction was consistent with the degree of axonal damage. Axotomy was observed in animals that exhibited no recovery on TES-MEP, and only hemorrhagic changes in the white matter were observed in animals that exhibited incomplete recovery. Clinical Relevance: The information on TES-MEP changes and histological responses associated with distraction in an animal model may be useful in corrective surgery for spinal deformity in humans. COPYRIGHT

AB - Background: Spinal cord injury can occur following surgical procedures for correction of scoliosis and kyphosis, as these procedures produce lengthening of the vertebral column. The objective of this study was to cause spinal cord injury by vertebral column distraction and evaluate the histological changes in the spinal cord in relationship to the pattern of recovery from the spinal cord injury. Methods: Global osteotomy of all three spinal columns was performed on the ninth thoracic vertebra of sixteen pigs. The osteotomized vertebra was distracted until transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potential (TES-MEP) signals disappeared or decreased by >80% compared with the baseline amplitude; this was defined as spinal cord injury. The distraction distance at which spinal cord injury occurred was measured, the distraction was released, and the TES-MEP recovery pattern was observed. A wake-up test was performed, two days of observations were made, and histological changes were evaluated in relationship to the recovery pattern. Results: Spinal cord injury developed at a distraction distance of 20.2 ± 4.7 mm, equivalent to 3.6% of the thoracolumbar spinal length, and the distraction distance was correlated with the thoracolumbar spinal length (r = 0.632, p = 0.009). No animals exhibited complete recovery according to TES-MEP testing, eleven exhibited incomplete recovery, and five exhibited no recovery. During the two days of observation, all eleven animals with incomplete recovery showed positive responses to sensory and motor tests, whereas none of the five animals with no recovery had positive responses. On histological evaluation, three animals that exhibited no recovery all showed complete severance of nerve fibers (axotomy), whereas six animals that exhibited incomplete recovery all showed partial white-matter injury. Conclusions: Parallel distraction of approximately 3.6% of the thoracolumbar length after global osteotomy resulted in spinal cord injury and histological evidence of spinal cord damage. The pattern of recovery from the spinal cord injury after release of the distraction was consistent with the degree of axonal damage. Axotomy was observed in animals that exhibited no recovery on TES-MEP, and only hemorrhagic changes in the white matter were observed in animals that exhibited incomplete recovery. Clinical Relevance: The information on TES-MEP changes and histological responses associated with distraction in an animal model may be useful in corrective surgery for spinal deformity in humans. COPYRIGHT

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