Background & Aims: Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV) has activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). We performed a phase 3 study to compare the antiviral efficacy and safety of BSV vs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with chronic HBV infection in Korea. Methods: We conducted a double-blind, non-inferiority trial of 197 patients with chronic HBV infection at 22 sites in South Korea, from November 2013 through February 2016. Patients were randomly assigned to groups given BSV (150 mg, n = 99) or TDF (300 mg, n = 98) for 48 weeks. We evaluated virologic responses to therapy (HBV DNA <69 IU/mL or 400 copies/ml), bone mineral density (BMD), and renal outcomes for safety analysis. The main efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with a virologic response at week 48. After 48 weeks, TDF was switched to BSV (150 mg) for an additional 48 weeks. Results: After 48 weeks of treatment, 80.9% of patients given BSV and 84.9% of patients given TDF met the efficacy endpoint, indicating the non-inferiority of BSV to TDF. At week 96, 87.2% of patients in the BSV–BSV and 85.7% of patients in the TDF–BSV had a virologic response. At week 48, changes in hip and spine BMD differed significantly between the BSV and TDF groups, whereas the estimated glomerular filtration rate in the TDF group was significantly lower than that in the BSV group. However, at 96 weeks, there were no significant differences in BMD and estimated glomerular filtration rate between the BSV-BSV and TDF-BSV groups. Conclusions: BSV has antiviral efficacy comparable to that of TDF after 48 weeks of treatment, with durable effects for 96 weeks. BSV has a better safety profile than TDF, in terms of bone and renal outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01937806.
- Acyclic Nucleotide Phosphonate
- Drug Resistance
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