Enhanced Efficiency and Long-Term Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells by Synergistic Effect of Nonhygroscopic Doping in Conjugated Polymer-Based Hole-Transporting Layer

Chang Woo Koh, Jin Hyuck Heo, Mohammad Afsar Uddin, Young Wan Kwon, Dong Hoon Choi, Sang Hyuk Im, Han Young Woo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A face-on oriented and p-doped semicrystalline conjugated polymer, poly[(2,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)phenylene)-alt-(5,6-difluoro-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]-thiadiazole)] (PPDT2FBT), was studied as a hole-transport layer (HTL) in methylammonium lead triiodide-based perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). PPDT2FBT exhibits a mid-band gap (1.7 eV), high vertical hole mobility (7.3 × 10-3 cm2/V·s), and well-aligned frontier energy levels with a perovskite layer for efficient charge transfer/transport, showing a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.8%. Upon doping the PPDT2FBT HTL with a nonhygroscopic Lewis acid, tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (BCF, 2-6 wt %), the vertical conductivity was improved by a factor of approximately 2, and the resulting PCE was further improved up to 17.7%, which is higher than that of standard PVSCs with 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as an HTL. After BCF doping, the clearly enhanced carrier diffusion coefficient, diffusion length, and lifetime were measured using intensity-modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy. Furthermore, compared to the standard PVSCs with spiro-OMeTAD, the temporal device stability was remarkably improved, preserving the -60% of the original PCE for 500 h without encapsulation under light-soaking condition (1 sun AM 1.5G) at 85 °C and 85% humidity, which is mainly due to the highly crystalline conjugated backbone of PPDT2FBT and nonhygroscopic nature of BCF. In addition, formamidinium lead iodide/bromide (FAPbI3-xBrx)-based PVSCs with the BCF-doped PPDT2FBT as an HTL was also prepared to show 18.8% PCE, suggesting a wide applicability of PPDT2FBT HTL for different types of PVSCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43846-43854
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume9
Issue number50
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Dec 20

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Conjugated polymers
Doping (additives)
Conversion efficiency
Thiadiazoles
Lewis Acids
Hole mobility
Iodides
Photocurrents
Bromides
Encapsulation
Sun
Perovskite
Electron energy levels
Charge transfer
Atmospheric humidity
Energy gap
Lead
Perovskite solar cells
Spectroscopy
Crystalline materials

Keywords

  • hole-transport material
  • nonhygroscopic doping
  • p-type dopant
  • perovskite solar cell
  • semicrystalline polymer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Enhanced Efficiency and Long-Term Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells by Synergistic Effect of Nonhygroscopic Doping in Conjugated Polymer-Based Hole-Transporting Layer. / Koh, Chang Woo; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Uddin, Mohammad Afsar; Kwon, Young Wan; Choi, Dong Hoon; Im, Sang Hyuk; Woo, Han Young.

In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 9, No. 50, 20.12.2017, p. 43846-43854.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Koh, Chang Woo ; Heo, Jin Hyuck ; Uddin, Mohammad Afsar ; Kwon, Young Wan ; Choi, Dong Hoon ; Im, Sang Hyuk ; Woo, Han Young. / Enhanced Efficiency and Long-Term Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells by Synergistic Effect of Nonhygroscopic Doping in Conjugated Polymer-Based Hole-Transporting Layer. In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2017 ; Vol. 9, No. 50. pp. 43846-43854.
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abstract = "A face-on oriented and p-doped semicrystalline conjugated polymer, poly[(2,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)phenylene)-alt-(5,6-difluoro-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]-thiadiazole)] (PPDT2FBT), was studied as a hole-transport layer (HTL) in methylammonium lead triiodide-based perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). PPDT2FBT exhibits a mid-band gap (1.7 eV), high vertical hole mobility (7.3 × 10-3 cm2/V·s), and well-aligned frontier energy levels with a perovskite layer for efficient charge transfer/transport, showing a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.8{\%}. Upon doping the PPDT2FBT HTL with a nonhygroscopic Lewis acid, tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (BCF, 2-6 wt {\%}), the vertical conductivity was improved by a factor of approximately 2, and the resulting PCE was further improved up to 17.7{\%}, which is higher than that of standard PVSCs with 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as an HTL. After BCF doping, the clearly enhanced carrier diffusion coefficient, diffusion length, and lifetime were measured using intensity-modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy. Furthermore, compared to the standard PVSCs with spiro-OMeTAD, the temporal device stability was remarkably improved, preserving the -60{\%} of the original PCE for 500 h without encapsulation under light-soaking condition (1 sun AM 1.5G) at 85 °C and 85{\%} humidity, which is mainly due to the highly crystalline conjugated backbone of PPDT2FBT and nonhygroscopic nature of BCF. In addition, formamidinium lead iodide/bromide (FAPbI3-xBrx)-based PVSCs with the BCF-doped PPDT2FBT as an HTL was also prepared to show 18.8{\%} PCE, suggesting a wide applicability of PPDT2FBT HTL for different types of PVSCs.",
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AU - Koh, Chang Woo

AU - Heo, Jin Hyuck

AU - Uddin, Mohammad Afsar

AU - Kwon, Young Wan

AU - Choi, Dong Hoon

AU - Im, Sang Hyuk

AU - Woo, Han Young

PY - 2017/12/20

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N2 - A face-on oriented and p-doped semicrystalline conjugated polymer, poly[(2,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)phenylene)-alt-(5,6-difluoro-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]-thiadiazole)] (PPDT2FBT), was studied as a hole-transport layer (HTL) in methylammonium lead triiodide-based perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). PPDT2FBT exhibits a mid-band gap (1.7 eV), high vertical hole mobility (7.3 × 10-3 cm2/V·s), and well-aligned frontier energy levels with a perovskite layer for efficient charge transfer/transport, showing a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.8%. Upon doping the PPDT2FBT HTL with a nonhygroscopic Lewis acid, tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (BCF, 2-6 wt %), the vertical conductivity was improved by a factor of approximately 2, and the resulting PCE was further improved up to 17.7%, which is higher than that of standard PVSCs with 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as an HTL. After BCF doping, the clearly enhanced carrier diffusion coefficient, diffusion length, and lifetime were measured using intensity-modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy. Furthermore, compared to the standard PVSCs with spiro-OMeTAD, the temporal device stability was remarkably improved, preserving the -60% of the original PCE for 500 h without encapsulation under light-soaking condition (1 sun AM 1.5G) at 85 °C and 85% humidity, which is mainly due to the highly crystalline conjugated backbone of PPDT2FBT and nonhygroscopic nature of BCF. In addition, formamidinium lead iodide/bromide (FAPbI3-xBrx)-based PVSCs with the BCF-doped PPDT2FBT as an HTL was also prepared to show 18.8% PCE, suggesting a wide applicability of PPDT2FBT HTL for different types of PVSCs.

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KW - hole-transport material

KW - nonhygroscopic doping

KW - p-type dopant

KW - perovskite solar cell

KW - semicrystalline polymer

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