Enzymatic electrodes were fabricated by using three different immobilizations of glucose oxidase (GOx): covalent enzyme attachment (CA), enzyme coating (EC), and enzyme precipitate coating (EPC), here referred to as CA-E, EC-E, and EPC-E, respectively. When additional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were introduced from 0 to 75wt% for the EPC-E design, its initial biosensor sensitivity was improved from 2.40×10-3 to 16.26×10-3 AM-1cm-2, while its electron charge transfer rate constant was increased from 0.33 to 1.47s-1. When a fixed ratio of CNTs was added for three different electrode systems, EPC-E showed the best glucose sensitivity and long-term thermal stability. For example, when 75wt% of additional CNTs was added, the initial sensitivity of EPC-E was 16.26×10-3 AM-1cm-2, while those of EC-E and CA-E were only 6.42×10-3 and 1.18×10-3 AM-1cm-2, respectively. Furthermore, EPC-E retained 63% of its initial sensitivity after thermal treatment at 40°C over 41days, while EC-E and CA-E showed only 12% and 1% of initial sensitivities, respectively. Consequently, the EPC approach with additional CNTs achieved both high sensitivity and long-term stability, which are required for continuous and accurate glucose monitoring.
- Carbon nanotubes
- Electron generation and transfer
- Enzymatic glucose sensors
- Enzyme precipitate coating
- Glucose oxidase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry