Direct electron transfer between a redox label and an electrode requires a short working distance (<1-2 nm), and in general an affinity biosensor based on direct electron transfer requires a finely smoothed Au electrode to support efficient target binding. Here we report that direct electron transfer over a longer working distance is possible between (i) an anionic π-conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) label having many redox-active sites and (ii) a readily prepared, thin polymeric monolayer-modified indium-tin oxide electrode. In addition, the long CPE label (∼18 nm for 10 kDa) can approach the electrode within the working distance after sandwich-type target-specific binding, and fast CPE-mediated oxidation of ammonia borane along the entire CPE backbone affords high signal amplification.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry