We investigated the surface plasmon coupling behavior in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells at 460 nm by employing Ag nanostructures on the top of a roughened p-type GaN. After the growth of a blue light emitting diode structure, the p-GaN layer was roughened by inductive coupled plasma etching and the Ag nanostructures were formed on it. This structure showed a drastic enhancement in photoluminescence and electroluminescence intensity and the degree of enhancement was found to depend on the morphology of Ag nanostructures. From the time-resolved photoluminescence measurement a faster decay rate for the Ag-coated structure was observed. The calculated Purcell enhancement factor indicated that the improved luminescence intensity was attributed to the energy transfer from electron-hole pair recombination in the quantum well to electron vibrations of surface plasmon at the Ag-coated surface of the roughened p-GaN.