To extract the confined waveguided light in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), inserting a low refractive index (RI) periodic structure between the anode and organic layer has been widely investigated as a promising technology. However, the periodic-structure-based light extraction applied inside devices has been shown to severely distort spectrum and affect EL characteristics. In this study, a simple light extraction technology using periodic low-RI nanodot array (NDA) as internal light extraction layer has been demonstrated. The NDA was fabricated simply via laser interference lithography (LIL). The structural parameters of periodic pattern, distance, and height were easily controlled by the LIL process. From computational analysis using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the NDA with 300 nm pitch and 0.3 coverage ratio per unit cell with 60 nm height showed the highest enhancement with spectral-distortion-minimized characteristics. Through both computational and experimental systematic analysis on the structural parameters of low-RI NDA-embedded OLEDs, highly efficient OLEDs have been fabricated. Finally, as representative indicators, hexagonal and rectangular positioned NDA-embedded OLEDs showed highly improved external quantum efficiencies of 2.44 (+29.55%) and 2.77 (+57.38%), respectively. Furthermore, the disadvantage originating from the nanoscale surface roughness on the transparent conductive oxide was minimized.
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