Enhancement of antibody responses to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen domain IV by use of calreticulin as a chimeric molecular adjuvant

Sung Park Yong, Hyup Lee Jin, Chien Fu Hung, T. C. Wu, Tae Woo Kim

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Abstract

The generation of protective humoral immune responses against the receptor-binding domain (domain IV) of protective antigen [PA(dIV)] of Bacillus anthracis represents a plausible approach against anthrax toxin. In the current study, we have developed a naked DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to PA(dIV) of Bacillus anthracis [CRT/PA(dIV)]. We transfected a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293) with CRT/PA(dIV) DNA and performed Western blotting and confocal microscopy analysis. We found that linkage of CRT to PA(dIV) targets PA(dIV) to the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in secretion of the chimeric CRT/PA(dIV) protein. We then evaluated the ability of CRT/PA(dIV) DNA to generate PA(dIV)-specinc antibody responses and protective immunity against lethal anthrax toxin (PA plus lethal factor) challenge. We found that mice immunized with CRT/PA(dIV) DNA were capable of rapidly inducing significantly higher PA(dIV)-specific antibody responses than mice immunized with PA(dIV) DNA alone. Furthermore, we observed that this enhanced antibody response generated by CRT/PA(dIV) DNA was CD4 dependent, since CD4 knockout mice demonstrated a significant reduction in antibody responses. In addition, analysis of the titers and avidity maturation of the induced PA-specific antibodies revealed that vaccination with CRT/PA(dIV) DNA vaccine accelerated the avidity maturation of antibodies to PA(dIV) compared to vaccination with PA(dIV) DNA. Importantly, the enhanced antibody responses correlated to protective immunity against lethal anthrax toxin challenge. Thus, DNA vaccines encoding CRT linked to PA(dIV) may dramatically enhance PA-specific protective antibody responses. Our results have significant clinical applications for biodefense against anthrax toxin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1952-1959
Number of pages8
JournalInfection and Immunity
Volume76
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008 May 1

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Calreticulin
Antibody Formation
DNA Vaccines
DNA
Immunity
Vaccination
anthrax toxin
Bacillus anthracis
Antibody Affinity
HEK293 Cells
Humoral Immunity
Knockout Mice
Confocal Microscopy
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Western Blotting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

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Enhancement of antibody responses to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen domain IV by use of calreticulin as a chimeric molecular adjuvant. / Yong, Sung Park; Jin, Hyup Lee; Hung, Chien Fu; Wu, T. C.; Kim, Tae Woo.

In: Infection and Immunity, Vol. 76, No. 5, 01.05.2008, p. 1952-1959.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The generation of protective humoral immune responses against the receptor-binding domain (domain IV) of protective antigen [PA(dIV)] of Bacillus anthracis represents a plausible approach against anthrax toxin. In the current study, we have developed a naked DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to PA(dIV) of Bacillus anthracis [CRT/PA(dIV)]. We transfected a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293) with CRT/PA(dIV) DNA and performed Western blotting and confocal microscopy analysis. We found that linkage of CRT to PA(dIV) targets PA(dIV) to the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in secretion of the chimeric CRT/PA(dIV) protein. We then evaluated the ability of CRT/PA(dIV) DNA to generate PA(dIV)-specinc antibody responses and protective immunity against lethal anthrax toxin (PA plus lethal factor) challenge. We found that mice immunized with CRT/PA(dIV) DNA were capable of rapidly inducing significantly higher PA(dIV)-specific antibody responses than mice immunized with PA(dIV) DNA alone. Furthermore, we observed that this enhanced antibody response generated by CRT/PA(dIV) DNA was CD4 dependent, since CD4 knockout mice demonstrated a significant reduction in antibody responses. In addition, analysis of the titers and avidity maturation of the induced PA-specific antibodies revealed that vaccination with CRT/PA(dIV) DNA vaccine accelerated the avidity maturation of antibodies to PA(dIV) compared to vaccination with PA(dIV) DNA. Importantly, the enhanced antibody responses correlated to protective immunity against lethal anthrax toxin challenge. Thus, DNA vaccines encoding CRT linked to PA(dIV) may dramatically enhance PA-specific protective antibody responses. Our results have significant clinical applications for biodefense against anthrax toxin.",
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