Environmental factors which can affect the burden of pneumococcal disease and the immune response to pneumococcal vaccines: the need for more precisely delineated vaccine recommendations

Seong Beom Park, Hyun Jin Kim, Hee-Jin Cheong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Introduction: Precision medicine describes the customization of healthcare tailored to the individual patient. Generally, vaccines are considered as public health tools rather than from the individual patient perspective. However, adult vaccination programs in particular should consider many different factors, at the individual level and also from societal, cultural and country-specific perspectives. Currently, most immunization programs, including those for pneumococcal vaccines, have only been adopted on the basis of age or medical risk. Areas covered: Based on a broad literature search, this review addresses possible environmental factors which can affect the burden of pneumococcal disease and the immune response to pneumococcal vaccines. Expert opinion: Factors which influence the incidence of pneumococcal disease and the reaction against pneumococcal vaccination, including personal conditions, geographic/ethnic factors and social risks, are diverse. To maximize the effects of pneumococcal vaccination, not only for public health but also to induce optimal effects at the individual level, vaccines need to be verified under diverse situations and with collaboration among relevant medical societies, governments, and the pharmaceutical industry. Whereas vaccines are generally considered only from the public health perspective, flexible, comprehensive and tailored pneumococcal immunization programs, with appropriate policy support, can generate a greater positive impact on public health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)587-596
Number of pages10
JournalExpert Review of Vaccines
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 3



  • Environmental factors
  • PCV13
  • pneumococcal vaccine
  • pneumovax
  • PPSV23
  • prevnar

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery

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