Enzymatic production of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose from agarose and its purification and in vitro skin whitening and anti-inflammatory activities

Eun Ju Yun, Saeyoung Lee, Ji Hye Kim, Bo Bae Kim, Hee Taek Kim, Sun Hee Lee, Jeffrey G. Pelton, Nam Joo Kang, In Geol Choi, Kyoung Heon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

58 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose (L-AHG) constitutes 50 % of agarose, which is the main component of red macroalgae. No information is currently available on the mass production, metabolic fate, or physiological effects of L-AHG. Here, agarose was converted to L-AHG in the following three steps: pre-hydrolysis of agarose into agaro-oligosaccharides by using acetic acid, hydrolysis of the agaro-oligosaccharides into neoagarobiose by an exo-agarase, and hydrolysis of neoagarobiose into L-AHG and galactose by a neoagarobiose hydrolase. After these three steps, L-AHG was purified by adsorption and gel permeation chromatographies. The final product obtained was 95.6 % pure L-AHG at a final yield of 4.0 % based on the initial agarose. In a cell proliferation assay, L-AHG at a concentration of 100 or 200 μg/ mL did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity. In a skin whitening assay, 100 μg/ mL of L-AHG showed significantly lower melanin production compared to arbutin. L-AHG at 100 and 200 μg/ mL showed strong anti-inflammatory activity, indicating the significant suppression of nitrite production. This is the first report on the production of high-purity L-AHG and its physiological activities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2961-2970
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Volume97
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Apr

Keywords

  • 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose
  • Agar
  • Anti-inflammation
  • Red macroalgae
  • Skin whitening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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