Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Processivity Factor EA-D Facilitates Virus Lytic Replication by Inducing Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 Degradation

Seungrae Lee, Jaehyun Kim, Woo Chang Chung, Ji Ho Han, Moon Jung Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Gammaherpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are important human pathogens because they are associated with various tumors. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a multifunctional host nuclear protein responsible for poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) of target proteins. While PARP1 acts as a negative regulator that suppresses the lytic replication of gammaherpesviruses, viruses are often equipped with various strategies to overcome PARP1 inhibition. However, the mechanisms of how EBV may modulate a repressive host protein, PARP1, are still elusive. In this study, we found that EBV reactivation induced PARP1 downregulation in EBV-infected cells. EBV DNA polymerase processivity factor EA-D, encoded by the BMRF1 gene, directly interacted with the central automodification domain (AD) of PARP1 and was necessary and sufficient to downregulate PARP1 via K29-linked polyubiquitination. Moreover, knockdown of EA-D in B95.8 cells restored PARP1 levels and abrogated the expression of ZTA (also known as ZEBRA), a switch molecule of the EBV life cycle during reactivation. Interestingly, PARP1 PARylated RTA, another key switch molecule, and decreased RTA transactivation on the promoters of the ZTA, BMRF1, and BMLF1 genes. EA-D alleviated the PARylation of RTA and further enhanced RTA-mediated transactivation of these lytic promoters in reporter assays. Taken together, our results suggest that EBV viral processivity factor plays a key role in facilitating lytic replication by inducing PARP1 degradation via its interaction with the PARP1 AD, which is a highly conserved mechanism among gammaherpesviruses to counteract host repressive activity of PARP1 against viral lytic replication.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of virology
Volume96
Issue number21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov

Keywords

  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • lytic replication
  • poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1
  • proteasomal degradation
  • viral processivity factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

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