Estimating change in cardiovascular disease and diabetes burdens due to dietary and metabolic factors in Korea 1998-2011

A comparative risk assessment analysis

Yoonsu Cho, Frederick Cudhea, Ju Hyun Park, Jong-Tae Lee, Dariush Mozaffarian, Gitanjali Singh, Min-Jeong Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives Over the past 10 years, the burden of chronic diseases in Korea has increased. However, there are currently no quantitative estimates of how changes in diet and metabolic factors have contributed to these shifting burdens. This study aims to evaluate the contributions of dietary and metabolic risk factors to death from cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) such as cardiovascular conditions, strokes and diabetes in Korea, and to estimate how these contributions have changed over the past 10 years (1998-2011). Design and methods We used data on 6 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors by sex, age and year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The relative risks for the effects of the risk factors on CMD mortality were obtained from meta-analyses. The population-attributable fraction attributable to the risk factors was calculated by using a comparative risk assessment approach across sex and age strata (males and females, age groups 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74 and 75+ years) from 1998 to 2011. Results The results showed that a suboptimal diet and high blood pressure were the main risk factors for CMD mortality in Korea. High blood pressure accounted for 127 096 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 121 907 to 132 218) deaths from CMD. Among the individual dietary risk factors, a high intake of sodium (42 387 deaths; 95% UI: 42 387 to 65 094) and a low intake of fruit (50 244 deaths; 95% UI: 40 981 to 59 178) and whole grains (54 248 deaths; 95% UI: 47 020 to 61 343) were responsible for the highest number of CMD deaths in Korea. Conclusions Indicating the relative importance of risk factors in Korea, the results suggest that metabolic and dietary risk factors were major contributors to CMD mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere013283
JournalBMJ Open
Volume6
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Dec 1

Fingerprint

Korea
Cardiovascular Diseases
Uncertainty
Mortality
Diet
Hypertension
Nutrition Surveys
Meta-Analysis
Fruit
Chronic Disease
Age Groups
Sodium
Myocardial Infarction
Population

Keywords

  • Burden of disease
  • Cardiometabolic disease
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Dietary Risk
  • Metabolic risk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Estimating change in cardiovascular disease and diabetes burdens due to dietary and metabolic factors in Korea 1998-2011 : A comparative risk assessment analysis. / Cho, Yoonsu; Cudhea, Frederick; Park, Ju Hyun; Lee, Jong-Tae; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Singh, Gitanjali; Shin, Min-Jeong.

In: BMJ Open, Vol. 6, No. 12, e013283, 01.12.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objectives Over the past 10 years, the burden of chronic diseases in Korea has increased. However, there are currently no quantitative estimates of how changes in diet and metabolic factors have contributed to these shifting burdens. This study aims to evaluate the contributions of dietary and metabolic risk factors to death from cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) such as cardiovascular conditions, strokes and diabetes in Korea, and to estimate how these contributions have changed over the past 10 years (1998-2011). Design and methods We used data on 6 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors by sex, age and year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The relative risks for the effects of the risk factors on CMD mortality were obtained from meta-analyses. The population-attributable fraction attributable to the risk factors was calculated by using a comparative risk assessment approach across sex and age strata (males and females, age groups 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74 and 75+ years) from 1998 to 2011. Results The results showed that a suboptimal diet and high blood pressure were the main risk factors for CMD mortality in Korea. High blood pressure accounted for 127 096 (95{\%} uncertainty interval (UI): 121 907 to 132 218) deaths from CMD. Among the individual dietary risk factors, a high intake of sodium (42 387 deaths; 95{\%} UI: 42 387 to 65 094) and a low intake of fruit (50 244 deaths; 95{\%} UI: 40 981 to 59 178) and whole grains (54 248 deaths; 95{\%} UI: 47 020 to 61 343) were responsible for the highest number of CMD deaths in Korea. Conclusions Indicating the relative importance of risk factors in Korea, the results suggest that metabolic and dietary risk factors were major contributors to CMD mortality.",
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AU - Lee, Jong-Tae

AU - Mozaffarian, Dariush

AU - Singh, Gitanjali

AU - Shin, Min-Jeong

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N2 - Objectives Over the past 10 years, the burden of chronic diseases in Korea has increased. However, there are currently no quantitative estimates of how changes in diet and metabolic factors have contributed to these shifting burdens. This study aims to evaluate the contributions of dietary and metabolic risk factors to death from cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) such as cardiovascular conditions, strokes and diabetes in Korea, and to estimate how these contributions have changed over the past 10 years (1998-2011). Design and methods We used data on 6 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors by sex, age and year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The relative risks for the effects of the risk factors on CMD mortality were obtained from meta-analyses. The population-attributable fraction attributable to the risk factors was calculated by using a comparative risk assessment approach across sex and age strata (males and females, age groups 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74 and 75+ years) from 1998 to 2011. Results The results showed that a suboptimal diet and high blood pressure were the main risk factors for CMD mortality in Korea. High blood pressure accounted for 127 096 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 121 907 to 132 218) deaths from CMD. Among the individual dietary risk factors, a high intake of sodium (42 387 deaths; 95% UI: 42 387 to 65 094) and a low intake of fruit (50 244 deaths; 95% UI: 40 981 to 59 178) and whole grains (54 248 deaths; 95% UI: 47 020 to 61 343) were responsible for the highest number of CMD deaths in Korea. Conclusions Indicating the relative importance of risk factors in Korea, the results suggest that metabolic and dietary risk factors were major contributors to CMD mortality.

AB - Objectives Over the past 10 years, the burden of chronic diseases in Korea has increased. However, there are currently no quantitative estimates of how changes in diet and metabolic factors have contributed to these shifting burdens. This study aims to evaluate the contributions of dietary and metabolic risk factors to death from cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) such as cardiovascular conditions, strokes and diabetes in Korea, and to estimate how these contributions have changed over the past 10 years (1998-2011). Design and methods We used data on 6 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors by sex, age and year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The relative risks for the effects of the risk factors on CMD mortality were obtained from meta-analyses. The population-attributable fraction attributable to the risk factors was calculated by using a comparative risk assessment approach across sex and age strata (males and females, age groups 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74 and 75+ years) from 1998 to 2011. Results The results showed that a suboptimal diet and high blood pressure were the main risk factors for CMD mortality in Korea. High blood pressure accounted for 127 096 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 121 907 to 132 218) deaths from CMD. Among the individual dietary risk factors, a high intake of sodium (42 387 deaths; 95% UI: 42 387 to 65 094) and a low intake of fruit (50 244 deaths; 95% UI: 40 981 to 59 178) and whole grains (54 248 deaths; 95% UI: 47 020 to 61 343) were responsible for the highest number of CMD deaths in Korea. Conclusions Indicating the relative importance of risk factors in Korea, the results suggest that metabolic and dietary risk factors were major contributors to CMD mortality.

KW - Burden of disease

KW - Cardiometabolic disease

KW - Cardiovascular disease

KW - Dietary Risk

KW - Metabolic risk

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