Estimating free-living human energy expenditure: Practical aspects of the doubly labeled water method and its applications

Jonghoon Park, Ishikawa Takata Kazuko, Eunkyung Kim, Jeonghyun Kim, Jinsook Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

21 Citations (Scopus)


The accuracy and noninvasive nature of the doubly labeled water (DLW) method makes it ideal for the study of human energy metabolism in free-living conditions. However, the DLW method is not always practical in many developing and Asian countries because of the high costs of isotopes and equipment for isotope analysis as well as the expertise required for analysis. This review provides information about the theoretical background and practical aspects of the DLW method, including optimal dose, basic protocols of two- and multiple-point approaches, experimental procedures, and isotopic analysis. We also introduce applications of DLW data, such as determining the equations of estimated energy requirement and validation studies of energy intake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-248
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition Research and Practice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes



  • Doubly labeled water
  • Energy intake
  • Estimated energy requirement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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