Sonochemical reactions were quantified using KI dosimetry and analyzed based on calorimetry and electric energy consumption under single (35, 72, 170, 300, 500, and 1000 kHz) and dual (35/35, 35/72, 35/170, 35/300, 35/500, and 35/1000 kHz) frequency conditions. For single-frequency conditions, ultrasonic energy under calorimetry decreased as the applied frequency increased, while there was no significant change with the applied frequency for dual-frequency conditions. A synergistic effect was observed in the dual-frequency mode not considering the energy consumption; however, double the electric energy consumption in the dual mode was considered as the main reason for high performance. It seemed that calorimetry was not adequate for determining the optimal condition even though it was based on the direct measurement of the temperature in the solution. For electric energy analysis, there was no significant synergistic effect for dual-frequency applications and some single-frequency applications were superior to their dual-frequency counterparts.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)