Evaluation based on Monte Carlo simulation of lifetime attributable risk of cancer after neck X-ray radiography

Deoknam Seo, Seonggyu Han, Kie Hwan Kim, Jungsu Kim, Kyung Park, Hyunjong Lim, Jungmin Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


At present, concern regarding radiation exposure is increasing with the prevalence of radiologic examination. As radiation damages the human body, we have evaluated medical radiation dose values and studied the importance of optimizing radiation exposure. We measured entrance surface dose (ESD) values using a RANDO® phantom (neck) in 94 randomly selected locations in the central region of Korea. Thyroid and organ doses were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations (PCXMC 2.0.1) based on measured values. In addition, the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer was calculated for the thyroid, using the method proposed in the biological effects of ionizing radiation VII report. The average measured ESD values obtained using the RANDO® phantom (neck) were antero-posterior 1.33 mGy and lateral 1.23 mGy, for a total of 2.56 mGy. Based on the ESD values measured using the phantom, the organ doses were obtained using a Monte Carlo simulation (PCXMC 2.0.1). The thyroid dose was 1.48 mSv on average. In evaluating the LAR of thyroid cancer incidence, a frequency of 0.02 per 100,000 from 2.94 per 100,000 males and a frequency of 0.10 per 100,000 from 16.23 per 100,000 females were found. The risk of cancer was found to be higher when the patient’s age was lower, and was also higher in females than in males. It was concluded that beneficial exams in the medical field should not be prohibited because of a statistically small risk, although acknowledgement of the dangers of ionizing radiation is necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1043-1049
Number of pages7
JournalRadiologia Medica
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Nov 1


  • Entrance surface dose (ESD)
  • Lifetime attributable risk (LAR)
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Organ doses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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