Evaluation of Ototoxicity of an Antifog Agent and the Suspected Underlying Mechanisms: An Animal Study

Jihye Rhee, Eunjung Han, Yoon Chan Rah, Saemi Park, Soonil Koun, June Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Use of rigid endoscopes has become widespread in middle ear surgeries, thereby attracting attention to the safety of antifog agents. However, few studies on the ototoxicity of antifog agents have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hair cell damage and the underlying mechanisms caused by antifog agents using zebrafish larvae. We exposed zebrafish larvae at 3 days postfertilization to various concentrations of the antifog agent, Ultrastop (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.08%) for 72 hours. The average number of hair cells within 4 neuromasts of larvae, including supraorbital (SO1 and SO2), otic (O1), and occipital (OC1), in the control group were compared to those in the exposure groups. Significant hair cell loss was observed in the experimental groups compared to that in the control group (P <.01; control: 53.88 ± 4.85, 0.01%: 45.08 ± 11.70, 0.02%: 41.36 ± 12.00, 0.04%: 35.36 ± 16.18, and 0.08%: 15.60 ± 7.53 cells). Concentration-dependent increase in hair cell apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TDT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (control: 0.00 ± 0.00, 0.01%: 3.48 ± 2.18, 0.02%: 9.64 ± 5.75, 0.04%: 17.72 ± 6.26, and 0.08%: 14.60 ± 8.18 cells) and decrease in the viability of hair cell mitochondria by 2-(4-[dimethylamino] styryl)-N-ethylpyridinium iodide assay (control: 9.61 ± 1.47, 0.01%: 8.28 ± 2.22, 0.02%: 8.45 ± 2.72, 0.04%: 7.25 ± 2.44, and 0.08%: 6.77 ± 3.26 percentage of total area) were observed. Antifog agent exposure can cause hair cell damage in zebrafish larvae, possibly by induction of mitochondrial damage with subsequent apoptosis of hair cells.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEar, Nose and Throat Journal
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1

Keywords

  • antifog
  • hair cell
  • ototoxicity
  • zebrafish

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology

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