Evaluation of regulated, particulate, and BTEX emissions inventories from a gasoline direct injection passenger car with various ethanol blended fuels under urban and rural driving cycles in Korea

Cha Lee Myung, Kwanhee Choi, Jaeho Cho, Kangjin Kim, Sungha Baek, Yunsung Lim, Simsoo Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In this study, the regulated, particulate, and unregulated emissions, and the fuel economy (FE) from a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) vehicle were investigated on a chassis dynamometer. Two vehicle test cycles, the congested urban (NIER03) and rural modes (NIER09), which reflect vehicle driving patterns in Korea, were tested with varying ethanol contents of gasoline (E0), and low- (E10), medium- (E30 and E50), and high-ethanol blended fuels (E85). The particle number (PN) concentration from E0 was substantially reduced by one or two orders of magnitude with medium- or high-ethanol blended fuels, respectively. The E10 fuel showed the highest PN concentration because of the physicochemical mixture properties of the azeotropic characteristics. As the ethanol fraction increased, the particle sizes shifted to smaller sizes that were dependent on the vehicle test modes and oxygen proportions in the fuels. The regulated and unregulated emissions showed close relationships with the vehicle test modes and ethanol blends. Vehicle running with frequent idle-stops at an extremely low speed and dynamic transient driving under NIER03 showed higher BTEX emissions than the NIER09 mode, and produced lower emission levels due to the higher oxygen and lower aromatic proportions of the ethanol blends. Compared to the NIER03 mode, the CO2 emissions and FEs under the NIER09 mode were substantially improved, with a higher vehicle speed and more energy efficient engine operation points. The low energy contents of the E85 fuel resulted in slight increases in the CO2 emissions and reductions in the FEs of the NIER modes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116406
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Feb 15



  • BTEX compounds
  • Ethanol-gasoline blends
  • Gasoline direct injection
  • In-use vehicle test modes
  • Particle number

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Organic Chemistry

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