Experimental and numerical investigation of smoke dynamics in vertical cylinders and open-air environment

Chan Sol Ahn, Chan Woo Park, Min Woo Kim, Tae Gun Kim, Scott C. James, Youngbin Yoon, Alexander Yarin, Suk Goo Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Smoke rise in elevator shafts and stairwells is a primary risk from fires. Information on temperature and smoke velocity is necessary for safety evaluation and evacuation guidelines when designing high-rise buildings. Small-scale experiments were performed to measure smoke rise in open-ended, 2-m cylinders with diameters D = 1, 0.5, and 0.14 m and heating powers Q z = 32, 144, and 220 W. When D ≥ 0.5 m, smoke characteristics resembled those under open-air conditions for all values of Q z with minor deviations. When D = 0.14 m, smoke velocity decreased due to the increased relative boundary-layer thickness. For this narrowest cylinder, smoke temperature also decreased because of the relative increase of cool air drawn through the cylinder bottom. The overall mass flow rate was lowest through the smallest cylinder because of the reduced axial velocity and cross-sectional diameter. The axial velocity became fully developed toward the cylinder top; however, the velocity decreased again when the smoke exited. Temperature distributions were also uniform at the cylinder outlet because of the fully developed flow field. Increase in Q z increased temperature and velocity for all cylinders. Both the analytical solution from the open-air plume theory and numerical simulations using Fire Dynamics Simulator were compared against experimental data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)985-995
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Volume135
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 1

Fingerprint

smoke
Smoke
Fires
boundary layer thickness
Elevators
mass flow rate
outlets
Temperature
simulators
plumes
temperature
safety
Flow fields
flow distribution
Boundary layers
Temperature distribution
temperature distribution
Simulators
Flow rate
deviation

Keywords

  • Confined environments
  • Smoke dynamics
  • Turbulent buoyant plume
  • Wall effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

Cite this

Experimental and numerical investigation of smoke dynamics in vertical cylinders and open-air environment. / Ahn, Chan Sol; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Min Woo; Kim, Tae Gun; James, Scott C.; Yoon, Youngbin; Yarin, Alexander; Yoon, Suk Goo.

In: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 135, 01.06.2019, p. 985-995.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ahn, Chan Sol ; Park, Chan Woo ; Kim, Min Woo ; Kim, Tae Gun ; James, Scott C. ; Yoon, Youngbin ; Yarin, Alexander ; Yoon, Suk Goo. / Experimental and numerical investigation of smoke dynamics in vertical cylinders and open-air environment. In: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2019 ; Vol. 135. pp. 985-995.
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