Experimental and Numerical Simulations of Spray Impingement and Combustion Characteristics in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines under Variable Driving Conditions

Juhyeong Seo, Ho Young Kim, Simsoo Park, Scott C. James, Suk Goo Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) increases engine power output and reduces emissions. In GDI engines, increasing injection pressure improves atomization, which increases thermal efficiency at the cost of wall wetting. When wall wetting occurs, both soot emissions and fuel consumption increase. Wall wetting in GDI engines under cold driving conditions has rarely been considered. In this study, experimental data characterizing droplet splashing/spreading phenomena were collected to inform numerical simulations of combustion characteristics and wall wetting subject to variable driving conditions and excess air ratio, λ. Fully 3D and unsteady numerical simulations were carried out to predict flow-field, combustion, and spray-impingement characteristics. To simulate a GDI engine, a spray-impingement model was developed using both experimental data and previous modeling efforts. The excess air ratio and driving-condition temperature were the variable parameters considered in this study. When decreasing λ from 1.0 to 0.7 by increasing the fuel-injection rate (fuel rich), the cylinder pressure increases to 61 % of the pressure when λ=1.0. Because of increasing the fuel-injection rate, the increased momentum in the fuel spray increases both wall wetting and soot generation. At low driving-condition temperatures, the cylinder pressure was up to 63 % less than that under warm conditions, but with increased soot generation. Simulations revealed a correlation between wall wetting and the soot emissions. Soot generation was most sensitive to changes in wall wetting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-415
Number of pages25
JournalFlow, Turbulence and Combustion
Volume96
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Mar 1

Fingerprint

gasoline
impingement
Direct injection
Soot
wetting
Gasoline
sprayers
Wetting
engines
soot
injection
Engines
Computer simulation
simulation
fuel injection
Fuel injection
Engine cylinders
fuel sprays
splashing
fuel consumption

Keywords

  • Direct injection
  • Gasoline engine
  • Spray-wall impingement
  • Wall wetting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

Cite this

@article{c69391535e32438d953bab14aa1f9088,
title = "Experimental and Numerical Simulations of Spray Impingement and Combustion Characteristics in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines under Variable Driving Conditions",
abstract = "Gasoline direct injection (GDI) increases engine power output and reduces emissions. In GDI engines, increasing injection pressure improves atomization, which increases thermal efficiency at the cost of wall wetting. When wall wetting occurs, both soot emissions and fuel consumption increase. Wall wetting in GDI engines under cold driving conditions has rarely been considered. In this study, experimental data characterizing droplet splashing/spreading phenomena were collected to inform numerical simulations of combustion characteristics and wall wetting subject to variable driving conditions and excess air ratio, λ. Fully 3D and unsteady numerical simulations were carried out to predict flow-field, combustion, and spray-impingement characteristics. To simulate a GDI engine, a spray-impingement model was developed using both experimental data and previous modeling efforts. The excess air ratio and driving-condition temperature were the variable parameters considered in this study. When decreasing λ from 1.0 to 0.7 by increasing the fuel-injection rate (fuel rich), the cylinder pressure increases to 61 {\%} of the pressure when λ=1.0. Because of increasing the fuel-injection rate, the increased momentum in the fuel spray increases both wall wetting and soot generation. At low driving-condition temperatures, the cylinder pressure was up to 63 {\%} less than that under warm conditions, but with increased soot generation. Simulations revealed a correlation between wall wetting and the soot emissions. Soot generation was most sensitive to changes in wall wetting.",
keywords = "Direct injection, Gasoline engine, Spray-wall impingement, Wall wetting",
author = "Juhyeong Seo and Kim, {Ho Young} and Simsoo Park and James, {Scott C.} and Yoon, {Suk Goo}",
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AU - James, Scott C.

AU - Yoon, Suk Goo

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N2 - Gasoline direct injection (GDI) increases engine power output and reduces emissions. In GDI engines, increasing injection pressure improves atomization, which increases thermal efficiency at the cost of wall wetting. When wall wetting occurs, both soot emissions and fuel consumption increase. Wall wetting in GDI engines under cold driving conditions has rarely been considered. In this study, experimental data characterizing droplet splashing/spreading phenomena were collected to inform numerical simulations of combustion characteristics and wall wetting subject to variable driving conditions and excess air ratio, λ. Fully 3D and unsteady numerical simulations were carried out to predict flow-field, combustion, and spray-impingement characteristics. To simulate a GDI engine, a spray-impingement model was developed using both experimental data and previous modeling efforts. The excess air ratio and driving-condition temperature were the variable parameters considered in this study. When decreasing λ from 1.0 to 0.7 by increasing the fuel-injection rate (fuel rich), the cylinder pressure increases to 61 % of the pressure when λ=1.0. Because of increasing the fuel-injection rate, the increased momentum in the fuel spray increases both wall wetting and soot generation. At low driving-condition temperatures, the cylinder pressure was up to 63 % less than that under warm conditions, but with increased soot generation. Simulations revealed a correlation between wall wetting and the soot emissions. Soot generation was most sensitive to changes in wall wetting.

AB - Gasoline direct injection (GDI) increases engine power output and reduces emissions. In GDI engines, increasing injection pressure improves atomization, which increases thermal efficiency at the cost of wall wetting. When wall wetting occurs, both soot emissions and fuel consumption increase. Wall wetting in GDI engines under cold driving conditions has rarely been considered. In this study, experimental data characterizing droplet splashing/spreading phenomena were collected to inform numerical simulations of combustion characteristics and wall wetting subject to variable driving conditions and excess air ratio, λ. Fully 3D and unsteady numerical simulations were carried out to predict flow-field, combustion, and spray-impingement characteristics. To simulate a GDI engine, a spray-impingement model was developed using both experimental data and previous modeling efforts. The excess air ratio and driving-condition temperature were the variable parameters considered in this study. When decreasing λ from 1.0 to 0.7 by increasing the fuel-injection rate (fuel rich), the cylinder pressure increases to 61 % of the pressure when λ=1.0. Because of increasing the fuel-injection rate, the increased momentum in the fuel spray increases both wall wetting and soot generation. At low driving-condition temperatures, the cylinder pressure was up to 63 % less than that under warm conditions, but with increased soot generation. Simulations revealed a correlation between wall wetting and the soot emissions. Soot generation was most sensitive to changes in wall wetting.

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