Etoxazole is an organofluorine insecticide widely used in agriculture. Exposure to insecticides is a serious environmental problem owing to their cytotoxic effects in humans and animals. Reproductive toxicity of various organofluorine insecticides have been shown in previous studies. However, few studies have evaluated the toxicity of etoxazole in mammals. We aimed to examine the toxic effects of etoxazole in porcine trophectoderm (pTr) and uterine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells. To estimate the effects of etoxazole, we conducted assays after treatment with multiple concentration of etoxazole (0, 2, 4, 6 and 9 μM) to pTr and pLE cells for 0–72 h. Etoxazole decreased the cell proliferation, viability, and migration of pTr and pLE cells. Further, etoxazole induced apoptosis via cell cycle arrest and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. We also found that pro-apoptotic proteins and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response proteins were activated in response to etoxazole. Finally, we observed that etoxazole altered the PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways and the mRNA expression of genes associated with implantation. Collectively, these results suggest that etoxazole disrupts normal cellular physiology and might cause early implantation failure. Etoxazole might cause implantation failure via growth retardation and induction of cell death in porcine trophectoderm and endometrial luminal epithelium.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis