A basic pattern of gene expression and of relative expression levels during different growth phases was obtained for Corynebacterium glutamicum R grown on different carbon sources. The gapA-pgk-tpi-ppc gene cluster was transcribed as a mono- or polycistronic mRNA, depending on the growth phase. The 1.4 kb (gapA) and 2.3 kb (pgk-tip) mRNAs were expressed in the early through late exponential phases, whereas the 3.7 kb (gapA-pgk-tpi) and 5.4 kb (Pgk-tPi-PPc) mRNAs were only detected in the mid-exponential phase. All other glycolytic genes except pps, g1k and pgi were transcribed as monocistronic mRNAs under all tested conditions. Identification and alignment of the promoter regions of the transcriptional start sites of glycolytic genes revealed strong similarities to the σA consensus promoter sequences of Gram-positive bacteria. All genes involved in glycolysis were coordinately expressed in medium containing glucose. Growth in the presence of glucose gave rise to abundant expression of most glycolytic genes, with the level of gapA transcript being the highest. Glucose depletion led to a rapid repression of most glycolytic genes and a corresponding two- to fivefold increased expression of the gluconeogenic genes pps, pck and maIE, which are induced by pyruvate, lactate, acetate and/or other organic acids.
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