Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are typical secretory products of gastrointestinal mucus epithelia. Three TFF peptides exist in humans, TFF1 (formerly pS2), TFF2 (formerly hSP) and TFF3 (formerly hP1B/hITF), acting as link peptides and influencing the rheological properties of mucous gels. The combined actions of TFF peptides and mucins have been shown to provide significant protection to mucosal surfaces. In this respect, TFF peptides may play a key role in the maintenance of the surface integrity of nasal mucosa. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of mRNA of TFF peptides in human inferior turbinate mucosa using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. TFF1 and TFF3 mRNA were detected in the human turbinate tissues examined. In contrast, TFF2 mRNA was not expressed in any samples. Using in situ hybridization, TFF1 and TFF3 mRNA were predominantly localized in epithelial cells and submucosal glandular epithelium. These data suggest that nasal epithelia and submucosal glands may secrete TFF1 and TFF3, contributing to the stabilization of the mucous lining of human nasal mucosa.
- Inferior turbinate mucosa
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