Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) involving inferior vena cava (IVC) and/or right atrium (RA) is a very rare but serious disease. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess efficacy and safety of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for HCC involving IVC and/or RA. Materials and methods: Systematic search of Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library published was performed. Primary endpoints were 1-year overall survival (OS) rate and 2-year OS rates. Secondary endpoints were response rate, local control (LC) rate, and grade ≥3 toxicities. According to heterogeneity evaluated with Cochran Q test and I2 statistics, meta-analysis was performed using either random or fixed model. Results: A total of 8 studies and 9 cohorts were included, encompassing 164 patients. Pooled 1- and 2-year OS rates were 53.6% (95% CI: 45.7–61.3%) and 36.9% (95% CI: 27.2–42.4%), respectively. Pooled response rate and LC rate were 59.2% (95% CI: 39.0–76.7%) and 83.8% (95% CI: 78.8–97.1%), respectively. Only one study reported 2 grade ≥3 toxicities, an esophageal rupture and a pulmonary embolism cases. The overall rate of possible grade ≥3 complications was 1.2% (2 of 164). Conclusions: EBRT is a feasible and safe option to palliate HCC with IVC and/or RA invasion.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma
- Inferior vena cava
- Right atrium
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging