Fate and transport of zinc in a sand tank model: Monitoring of 2-D plume using TDR method

Sang Gil Lee, Min Hee Kim, Dong Ju Kim, Young Jae Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Sorption is a well-known phenomenon that may cause the retardation effect of zinc in the subsurface environment. In this study, the governing process for zinc sorption during transport was investigated by conducting 2-D plume tests in a laboratory scale sand tank model using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) method. Tracer solutions of NaNO3 and ZnSO4 were applied at a constant flow rate as a pulse type to capture the plumes of both solutes based on TDR-measured resistance. It was revealed that the observed zinc sulfate plume showed no retardation relative to sodium nitrate with a retardation factor of R ≈ 1. Instead of retardation, a prominent reduction of zinc sulfate mass occurred during transport through the tank model due to the irreversible sorption as well as longitudinal dispersion. This indicates that the controlling factor for the sorption process of zinc sulfate in the sand tank model is kinetic rather than equilibrium. These hydrogeological parameters would provide valuable information on the prediction of the fate of zinc in sandy aquifer materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Earth Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun


  • 2-D plume
  • Irreversible sorption
  • Sand tank model
  • TDR
  • Zinc sulfate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Pollution
  • Geology
  • Earth-Surface Processes


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