We introduce a notion of “matrix potential” to nonlinear optical systems. In terms of a matrix potential [Formula Presented], we present a gauge-field-theoretic formulation of the Maxwell-Bloch equation that provides a semiclassical description of the propagation of optical pulses through resonant multilevel media. We show that the Bloch part of the equation can be solved identically through [Formula Presented] and the remaining Maxwell equation becomes a second-order differential equation with a reduced set of variables due to the gauge invariance of the system. Our formulation clarifies the (non-Abelian) symmetry structure of the Maxwell-Bloch equations for various multilevel media in association with symmetric spaces [Formula Presented]. In particular, we associate the nondegenerate two-level system for self-induced transparency with [Formula Presented] and three-level [Formula Presented] or [Formula Presented] systems with [Formula Presented]. We give a detailed analysis for the two-level case in the matrix potential formalism, and address various properties of the system including soliton numbers, effective potential energy, gauge and discrete symmetries, modified pulse area, conserved topological, and nontopological charges. The nontopological charge measures the amount of self-detuning of each pulse. Its conservation law leads to a different type of pulse stability analysis that explains earlier numerical results.
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 1998|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics