FLOWERING LOCUS M isoforms differentially affect the subcellular localization and stability of SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE to regulate temperature-responsive flowering in Arabidopsis

Suhyun Jin, Sun Young Kim, Hendry Susila, Zeeshan Nasim, Geummin Youn, Ji Hoon Ahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Temperature is an important environmental cue that affects flowering time in plants. The MADS-box transcription factor FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) forms a heterodimeric complex with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) and controls ambient temperature-responsive flowering in Arabidopsis. FLM-β and FLM-δ, two major splice variants produced from the FLM locus, exert opposite effects on flowering, but the molecular mechanism by which the interaction between FLM isoforms and SVP affects temperature-responsive flowering remains poorly understood. Here, we show that FLM-β and FLM-δ play important roles in modulating the temperature-dependent behavior, conformation, and stability of SVP. Nuclear localization of SVP decreases as temperature increases. FLM-β is required for SVP nuclear translocation at low temperature, whereas SVP interacts with FLM-δ mainly in the cytoplasm at high temperature. SVP preferentially binds to FLM-β at low temperature in tobacco leaf cells. SVP shows high binding affinity to FLM-β at low temperature and to FLM-δ at high temperature. SVP undergoes similar structural changes in the interactions with FLM-β and FLM-δ; however, FLM-δ likely causes more pronounced conformational changes in the SVP structure. FLM-δ causes rapid degradation of SVP at high temperature, compared with FLM-β, possibly via ubiquitination. Mutation of lysine 53 or lysine 165 in SVP causes increased abundance of SVP due to reduced ubiquitination of SVP and thus delays flowering at high temperature. Our findings suggest that temperature-dependent differential interactions between SVP and FLM isoforms modulate the temperature-responsive induction of flowering in Arabidopsis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1696-1709
Number of pages14
JournalMolecular Plant
Volume15
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov 7

Keywords

  • ambient temperature
  • FLM
  • FLM-β
  • FLM-δ
  • flowering
  • nuclear translocation
  • SVP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Plant Science

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