Abnormal microenvironments (viscosity, polarity, pH, etc.) have been verified to be closely associated with numerous pathophysiological processes such as inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. As a result, deep insights into these pathophysiological microenvironments are particularly beneficial for clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the monitoring of pathophysiological microenvironments is unattainable by the traditional clinical diagnostic techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography. Recently, fluorescence imaging has shown tremendous advantages and potential in the tracing of pathophysiological microenvironment variations. In this context, a general discussion is provided on the state-of-the-art progress of fluorescent probes for visualizing pathophysiological microenvironments (viscosity, pH, and polarity), since 2016, as well as the future perspectives in this challenging field.
ASJC Scopus subject areas