Fluroxypyr-1-methylheptyl ester (FPMH) is an auxin herbicide that is widely applied to crops and pastures to block growth of post-emergence weeds. Several studies have reported the toxicity of FPMH in aquatic vertebrates. However, the adverse impacts of FPMH on mammals, including domestic animals, have not been reported. The purpose of our current study is to assess the impact of FPMH on the bovine mammary system and milk production. To evaluate the toxicity of FPMH on the mammary glands of lactating cows, the bovine mammary gland epithelial cell line, MAC-T, was exposed to various concentrations (0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, and 20 μM) of FPMH for 24 h, and then various assessments were performed. The results showed that FPMH dose-dependently reduced MAC-T cell viability following exposure to FPMH and induced mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis. FPMH also modulated signaling through the PI3K and MAPK pathways. In addition, the expression levels of proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were upregulated, indicating induction of ER stress, and calcium homeostasis was disrupted following FPMH treatment. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that FPMH may be toxic to the bovine mammary system and may decrease dairy production.
- Endoplasmic reticulum stress
- Fluroxypyr-1-methylheptyl ester
- Signal transduction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis