The structure of microdroplet and microparticle is a critical factor in their functionality, which determines the distribution and sequence of physicochemical reactions. Therefore, the technology of precisely tailoring their shape is requisite for implementing the user demand functions in various applications. This review highlights various methodologies for droplet shaping, classified into passive and active approaches based on whether additional body forces are applied to droplets to manipulate their functions and fabricate them into microparticles. The passive approaches cover batch emulsification, solvent evaporation and diffusion, micromolding, and microfluidic methods. In active approaches, the external forces, such as electrical and magnetic fields or optical lithography, are applied to microdroplets. Special attention is also given to latest technologies using microdroplets and microparticles, especially in the fields of biological, optical, robotic, and environmental applications. Finally, this review aims to address the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced approaches and suggests the direction for further development in this field.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Materials Science(all)