GABA and l-theanine mixture decreases sleep latency and improves NREM sleep

Suhyeon Kim, Kyungae Jo, Ki Bae Hong, Sung Hee Han, Hyung Joo Suh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

CONTEXT: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and it is well established that activation of GABAA receptors favours sleep. l-Theanine, a naturally occurring amino acid first discovered in green tea, is a well-known anti-anxiety supplement with proven relaxation benefits. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the potential synergistic sleep enhancement effect of GABA/l-theanine mixture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pentobarbital-induced sleep test was applied to find proper concentration for sleep-promoting effect in ICR mice. Electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis was performed to investigate total sleeping time and sleep quality in normal SD rats and caffeine-induced awareness model. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to investigate whether the sleep-promoting mechanism of GABA/l-theanine mixture involved transcriptional processes. RESULTS: GABA/l-theanine mixture (100/20 mg/kg) showed a decrease in sleep latency (20.7 and 14.9%) and an increase in sleep duration (87.3 and 26.8%) compared to GABA or theanine alone. GABA/l-theanine mixture led to a significant increase in rapid eye movement (REM) (99.6%) and non-REM (NREM) (20.6%) compared to controls. The use of GABA/l-theanine mixture rather than GABA or l-theanine alone restored to normal levels sleep time and quality in the arousal animal model. The administration of GABA/l-theanine led to increased expression of GABA and the glutamate GluN1 receptor subunit. CONCLUSIONS: GABA/l-theanine mixture has a positive synergistic effect on sleep quality and duration as compared to the GABA or l-theanine alone. The increase in GABA receptor and GluN1 expression is attributed to the potential neuromodulatory properties of GABA/l-theanine combination, which seems to affect sleep behaviour.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-73
Number of pages9
JournalPharmaceutical biology
Volume57
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Sleep
theanine
Aminobutyrates
Inbred ICR Mouse
GABA Receptors
REM Sleep
Glutamate Receptors
Tea
Pentobarbital
GABA-A Receptors
Eye Movements
Caffeine
Arousal
Neurotransmitter Agents
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Electroencephalography
Anxiety
Animal Models
Amino Acids

Keywords

  • electroencephalography
  • insomnia
  • pentobarbital-induced sleep test
  • γ-Aminobutyric acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

GABA and l-theanine mixture decreases sleep latency and improves NREM sleep. / Kim, Suhyeon; Jo, Kyungae; Hong, Ki Bae; Han, Sung Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo.

In: Pharmaceutical biology, Vol. 57, No. 1, 01.12.2019, p. 65-73.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kim, Suhyeon ; Jo, Kyungae ; Hong, Ki Bae ; Han, Sung Hee ; Suh, Hyung Joo. / GABA and l-theanine mixture decreases sleep latency and improves NREM sleep. In: Pharmaceutical biology. 2019 ; Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 65-73.
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AU - Jo, Kyungae

AU - Hong, Ki Bae

AU - Han, Sung Hee

AU - Suh, Hyung Joo

PY - 2019/12/1

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N2 - CONTEXT: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and it is well established that activation of GABAA receptors favours sleep. l-Theanine, a naturally occurring amino acid first discovered in green tea, is a well-known anti-anxiety supplement with proven relaxation benefits. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the potential synergistic sleep enhancement effect of GABA/l-theanine mixture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pentobarbital-induced sleep test was applied to find proper concentration for sleep-promoting effect in ICR mice. Electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis was performed to investigate total sleeping time and sleep quality in normal SD rats and caffeine-induced awareness model. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to investigate whether the sleep-promoting mechanism of GABA/l-theanine mixture involved transcriptional processes. RESULTS: GABA/l-theanine mixture (100/20 mg/kg) showed a decrease in sleep latency (20.7 and 14.9%) and an increase in sleep duration (87.3 and 26.8%) compared to GABA or theanine alone. GABA/l-theanine mixture led to a significant increase in rapid eye movement (REM) (99.6%) and non-REM (NREM) (20.6%) compared to controls. The use of GABA/l-theanine mixture rather than GABA or l-theanine alone restored to normal levels sleep time and quality in the arousal animal model. The administration of GABA/l-theanine led to increased expression of GABA and the glutamate GluN1 receptor subunit. CONCLUSIONS: GABA/l-theanine mixture has a positive synergistic effect on sleep quality and duration as compared to the GABA or l-theanine alone. The increase in GABA receptor and GluN1 expression is attributed to the potential neuromodulatory properties of GABA/l-theanine combination, which seems to affect sleep behaviour.

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