Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Increases Absorption of Glycine-Bound Iron in Mice with Iron Deficiency Anemia

Keun Tae Park, Insuk Sim, Hyun Soo Ko, Young Hee Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Iron deficiency is a leading cause of anemia. Amino acids are known to promote the absorption of both soluble and insoluble iron. The bioavailability of organic iron is higher than that of inorganic iron. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the iron absorption of glycine-bound iron (an organic iron) and a combination of glycine-bound iron and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mice with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Mice were fed an iron-deficient diet for 3 weeks, followed by oral administration of GABA, inorganic iron, glycine-bound iron, or GABA plus glycine-bound iron for 5 weeks. Ferritin storage in the spleen was measure by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Iron deposition in the liver and spleen tissues was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Expression levels of iron absorption-related genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Iron absorption was enhanced in the glycine-bound iron-treated group compared with the inorganic iron-treated group. Hemoglobin, serum Fe, ferritin, and liver iron levels did not increase in mice treated with GABA alone. However, mice administered GABA in combination with glycine-bound iron showed higher iron absorption than those administered organic iron alone. Our results indicate that glycine-bound iron in combination with GABA might exert a synergistic effect on iron absorption and bioavailability, suggesting that the addition of GABA to existing iron supplements might increase their effectiveness for treating IDA.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBiological Trace Element Research
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020 Jan 1

Fingerprint

Iron-Deficiency Anemias
Glycine
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Iron
Ferritins
Biological Availability
Liver
Spleen

Keywords

  • GABA
  • Inorganic iron
  • Iron absorption
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Organic iron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Cite this

Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Increases Absorption of Glycine-Bound Iron in Mice with Iron Deficiency Anemia. / Park, Keun Tae; Sim, Insuk; Ko, Hyun Soo; Lim, Young Hee.

In: Biological Trace Element Research, 01.01.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ad68b50f52a84056ad5810ce76285066,
title = "Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Increases Absorption of Glycine-Bound Iron in Mice with Iron Deficiency Anemia",
abstract = "Iron deficiency is a leading cause of anemia. Amino acids are known to promote the absorption of both soluble and insoluble iron. The bioavailability of organic iron is higher than that of inorganic iron. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the iron absorption of glycine-bound iron (an organic iron) and a combination of glycine-bound iron and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mice with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Mice were fed an iron-deficient diet for 3 weeks, followed by oral administration of GABA, inorganic iron, glycine-bound iron, or GABA plus glycine-bound iron for 5 weeks. Ferritin storage in the spleen was measure by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Iron deposition in the liver and spleen tissues was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Expression levels of iron absorption-related genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Iron absorption was enhanced in the glycine-bound iron-treated group compared with the inorganic iron-treated group. Hemoglobin, serum Fe, ferritin, and liver iron levels did not increase in mice treated with GABA alone. However, mice administered GABA in combination with glycine-bound iron showed higher iron absorption than those administered organic iron alone. Our results indicate that glycine-bound iron in combination with GABA might exert a synergistic effect on iron absorption and bioavailability, suggesting that the addition of GABA to existing iron supplements might increase their effectiveness for treating IDA.",
keywords = "GABA, Inorganic iron, Iron absorption, Iron deficiency anemia, Organic iron",
author = "Park, {Keun Tae} and Insuk Sim and Ko, {Hyun Soo} and Lim, {Young Hee}",
year = "2020",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s12011-020-02027-9",
language = "English",
journal = "Biological Trace Element Research",
issn = "0163-4984",
publisher = "Humana Press",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Increases Absorption of Glycine-Bound Iron in Mice with Iron Deficiency Anemia

AU - Park, Keun Tae

AU - Sim, Insuk

AU - Ko, Hyun Soo

AU - Lim, Young Hee

PY - 2020/1/1

Y1 - 2020/1/1

N2 - Iron deficiency is a leading cause of anemia. Amino acids are known to promote the absorption of both soluble and insoluble iron. The bioavailability of organic iron is higher than that of inorganic iron. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the iron absorption of glycine-bound iron (an organic iron) and a combination of glycine-bound iron and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mice with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Mice were fed an iron-deficient diet for 3 weeks, followed by oral administration of GABA, inorganic iron, glycine-bound iron, or GABA plus glycine-bound iron for 5 weeks. Ferritin storage in the spleen was measure by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Iron deposition in the liver and spleen tissues was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Expression levels of iron absorption-related genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Iron absorption was enhanced in the glycine-bound iron-treated group compared with the inorganic iron-treated group. Hemoglobin, serum Fe, ferritin, and liver iron levels did not increase in mice treated with GABA alone. However, mice administered GABA in combination with glycine-bound iron showed higher iron absorption than those administered organic iron alone. Our results indicate that glycine-bound iron in combination with GABA might exert a synergistic effect on iron absorption and bioavailability, suggesting that the addition of GABA to existing iron supplements might increase their effectiveness for treating IDA.

AB - Iron deficiency is a leading cause of anemia. Amino acids are known to promote the absorption of both soluble and insoluble iron. The bioavailability of organic iron is higher than that of inorganic iron. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the iron absorption of glycine-bound iron (an organic iron) and a combination of glycine-bound iron and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mice with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Mice were fed an iron-deficient diet for 3 weeks, followed by oral administration of GABA, inorganic iron, glycine-bound iron, or GABA plus glycine-bound iron for 5 weeks. Ferritin storage in the spleen was measure by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Iron deposition in the liver and spleen tissues was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Expression levels of iron absorption-related genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Iron absorption was enhanced in the glycine-bound iron-treated group compared with the inorganic iron-treated group. Hemoglobin, serum Fe, ferritin, and liver iron levels did not increase in mice treated with GABA alone. However, mice administered GABA in combination with glycine-bound iron showed higher iron absorption than those administered organic iron alone. Our results indicate that glycine-bound iron in combination with GABA might exert a synergistic effect on iron absorption and bioavailability, suggesting that the addition of GABA to existing iron supplements might increase their effectiveness for treating IDA.

KW - GABA

KW - Inorganic iron

KW - Iron absorption

KW - Iron deficiency anemia

KW - Organic iron

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85077713850&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85077713850&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s12011-020-02027-9

DO - 10.1007/s12011-020-02027-9

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85077713850

JO - Biological Trace Element Research

JF - Biological Trace Element Research

SN - 0163-4984

ER -