The generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) has been found to occur during inflammatory procedures, during cell ischemia, and in various crucial developmental processes such as cell differentiation and along cell signaling pathways. The most common sources of intracellular RONS are the mitochondrial electron transport system, NADH oxidase, and cytochrome P450. In this review, we analyzed the extracellular and intracellular sources of reactive species, their cell signaling pathways, the mechanisms of action, and their positive and negative effects in the dental field. In dentistry, ROS can be found-in lasers, photosensitizers, bleaching agents, cold plasma, and even resin cements, all of which contribute to the generation and prevalence of ROS. Nonthermal plasma has been used as a source of ROS for biomedical applications and has the potential for use with dental stem cells as well. There are different types of dental stem cells, but their therapeutic use remains largely untapped, with the focus currently on only periodontal ligament stem cells. More research is necessary in this area, including studies about ROS mechanisms with dental cells, along with the utilization of reactive species in redox medicine. Such studies will help to provide successful treatment modalities for various diseases.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology