Ampelomyces quisqualis complex is well known as the most common and widespread hyperparasite of the family Erysiphaceae, the cause of powdery mildew diseases. As commercial biopesticide products it is widely used to control the disease in field and plastic houses. Although genetic diversity within Ampelomyces isolates has been previously recognized, a single name A. quisqualis is still applied to all pycnidial intracellular hyperparasites of powdery mildew fungi. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships among Ampelomyces isolates originating from various powdery mildew fungi in Korea were inferred from Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses of the sequences of ITS rDNA region and actin gene. In the phylogenetic trees, the Ampelomyces isolates could be divided into four distinct groups with high sequence divergences in both regions. The largest group, Clade 1, mostly accommodated Ampelomyces isolates originating from the mycohost Podosphaera spp. (sect. Sphaerotheca). Clade 2 comprised isolates from several genera of powdery mildews, Golovinomyces, Erysiphe (sect. Erysiphe), Arthrocladiella, and Phyllactinia, and was further divided into two subclades. An isolate obtained from Podosphaera (sect. Sphaerotheca) pannosa was clustered into Clade 3, with those from powdery mildews infecting rosaceous hosts. The mycohosts of Ampelomyces isolates in Clade 4 mostly consisted of species of Erysiphe (sect. Erysiphe, sect. Microsphaera, and sect. Uncinula). The present phylogenetic study demonstrates that Ampelomyces hyperparasite is indeed an assemblage of several distinct lineages rather than a sole species. Although the correlation between Ampelomyces isolates and their mycohosts is not obviously clear, the isolates show not only some degree of host specialization but also adaptation to their mycohosts during the evolution of the hyperparasite.
- Powdery mildew
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Plant Science
- Infectious Diseases