Growth of anatase and rutile TiO2@Sb:SnO2 heterostructures and their application in photoelectrochemical water splitting

Sangbaek Park, Chan Woo Lee, In Sun Cho, Sanghyeon Kim, Jong Hun Park, Hae Jin Kim, Dong Wan Kim, Sangwook Lee, Kug Sun Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


We report three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures based on shape- and phase-controlled TiO2 coated transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanowire array. Core-shell and branched nanostructures were obtained using an aqueous chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at room temperature. Adjusting the pH of a TiCl4 solution is a key factor that determines the morphology of the nanostructure. Spherical TiO2 anatase covered a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO) nanowire when pH was maintained at a high level. In contrast, branched nanostructures with TiO2 rutile nanorods were synthesized by keeping a TiCl4 solution going down to a low pH. Nanorods were grown epitaxially along the [001] direction on ATO nanowires. Morphological and structural analysis indicates that phases and shapes of the 3D hybrid nanostructure are determined by the pH of the solution and the reaction time. A two-fold higher photoconversion efficiency of rutile TiO2 rod@ATO was obtained under simulated solar illumination compared to that of the anatase TiO2 nanoshell@ATO. These 3D hybrid nanostructures can offer (i) a large surface area and efficient charge transport in the TiO2 nanostructure, and (ii) an effective charge collection path through one-dimensional TCO, which is promising for various areas, including photoelectrochemical water splitting, as well as for application in electronic and photonic nanodevices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17508-17516
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number30
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Oct 13
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D structure
  • Photoelectrochemical
  • Room temperature
  • Transparent conducting oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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