High-performance CH3NH3PbI3 inverted planar perovskite solar cells via ammonium halide additives

Muhammad Jahandar, Nasir Khan, Muhammad Jahankhan, Chang Eun Song, Hang Ken Lee, Sang Kyu Lee, Won Suk Shin, Jong Cheol Lee, Sang Hyuk Im, Sang Jin Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have recently attracted substantial attention as a top candidate for use as light-absorbing materials in high-efficiency, low-cost and solution-processable photovoltaic devices owing to their excellent optoelectronic properties. Here, we fabricated inverted planar perovskite solar cells by incorporating small amounts of ammonium halide NH4X (X = F, Cl, Br, I) additives into a CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite solution. A compact and uniform perovskite absorber layer with large perovskite crystalline grains is realized by simply incorporating small amounts of additives and by using an anti-solvent engineering technique to control the nucleation and crystal growth of perovskite. The enlarged perovskite grain size with a reduced density of the grain boundaries and improved crystallinity results in fewer charge carrier recombinations and a reduced defect density, leading to enhanced device efficiency (NH4F: 14.88 ± 0.33%, NH4Cl: 16.63 ± 0.21%, NH4Br: 16.64 ± 0.35%, and NH4I: 17.28 ± 0.15%) compared to that of a reference MAPbI3 device (Ref.: 12.95 ± 0.48%) and greater device stability. This simple technique involving the introduction of small amounts of ammonium halide additives to regulate the nucleation and crystal growth of perovskite films translates into highly reproducible enhanced device performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)265-272
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec 25


  • Ammonium halide additives
  • Anti-Solvent engineering
  • CHNHPbIperovskite
  • Inverted planar structure
  • Perovskite grain size

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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