High-Temperature-Short-Time Annealing Process for High-Performance Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells

Minjin Kim, Gi Hwan Kim, Kyoung Suk Oh, Yimhyun Jo, Hyun Yoon, Ka Hyun Kim, Heon Lee, Jin Young Kim, Dong Suk Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)


Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are attracting tremendous research interest due to their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency with a high possibility of cost-effective fabrication and certified power conversion efficiency now exceeding 22%. Although many effective methods for their application have been developed over the past decade, their practical transition to large-size devices has been restricted by difficulties in achieving high performance. Here we report on the development of a simple and cost-effective production method with high-temperature and short-time annealing processing to obtain uniform, smooth, and large-size grain domains of perovskite films over large areas. With high-temperature short-time annealing at 400 °C for 4 s, the perovskite film with an average domain size of 1 μm was obtained, which resulted in fast solvent evaporation. Solar cells fabricated using this processing technique had a maximum power conversion efficiency exceeding 20% over a 0.1 cm2 active area and 18% over a 1 cm2 active area. We believe our approach will enable the realization of highly efficient large-area PCSs for practical development with a very simple and short-time procedure. This simple method should lead the field toward the fabrication of uniform large-scale perovskite films, which are necessary for the production of high-efficiency solar cells that may also be applicable to several other material systems for more widespread practical deployment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6057-6064
Number of pages8
JournalACS Nano
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jun 27


  • high performance
  • high-temperature annealing process
  • large-area perovskite solar cells
  • planar structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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    Kim, M., Kim, G. H., Oh, K. S., Jo, Y., Yoon, H., Kim, K. H., Lee, H., Kim, J. Y., & Kim, D. S. (2017). High-Temperature-Short-Time Annealing Process for High-Performance Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells. ACS Nano, 11(6), 6057-6064. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b02015