Highly efficient flexible OLEDs based on double-sided nano-dimpled substrate (PVB) with embedded AgNWs and TiO 2 nanoparticle for internal and external light extraction

Bong Han Bae, Sungwoo Jun, Min Sung Kwon, Byeong Kwon Ju

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A light extraction structure and a flexible electrode have been developed to enhance the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). However, these structures are still influenced by optical losses, poor electrical stability, and low throughput, and are not suitable to be adopted into FOLEDs due to the surface roughness problem, low flexibility/adhesion, complicated process, and high temperature/pressure process. Here, to solve these problems, we demonstrate embedded Ag nanowires (AgNWs) in flexible substrate and highly flexible random nano pattern via easy/low-cost solution form process at atmospheric pressure and low temperature without any additional material. This study demonstrates an internal and external light extraction structure composed of double-sided nano-dimpled substrate PVB (DndP), which is directly fabricated on both sides of a flexible substrate (polyvinyl butyral, PVB) only in itself without additional material via the easy/low-cost transferring process using the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by an anodization process-based solution form at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. Therefore, because the DndP and the substrate are composed of the same material, PVB, there is no light loss between their interfaces. In addition, a high-refractive-index TiO 2 nanoparticle, for the scattering effect, and AgNWs, for electrode flexibility, are embedded into the DndP via the covering method using the solution form. Such structures exhibit extraordinary mechanical flexibility due to the AgNWs embedded in the PVB substrate. Therefore, FOLEDs using such structures can be well adapted to flexible/rollable/foldable displays and wearable application devices. Moreover, the corrugated surface of FOLEDs by such structures can improve the current flow through increased surface area of electrodes and extract the trapped light through the scattering effect (Rayleigh, Mie), reducing the total reflection and coupled photon in metal/dielectric. In addition, the FOLEDs with such structures show color/spectrum-stable property and independence of viewing angles owing to their random nature. The final green FOLEDs with DndP, embedded scattering TiO 2 nanoparticle, and embedded AgNWs&PEDOT:PSS demonstrate an outstanding EL efficiency enhancement ratio of 2.23 time via internal and external light extraction without electrical short.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-94
Number of pages8
JournalOptical Materials
Volume92
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 1

Fingerprint

Organic light emitting diodes (OLED)
Nanowires
nanowires
Nanoparticles
nanoparticles
light emitting diodes
Substrates
flexibility
Electroluminescence
Scattering
electroluminescence
Electrodes
Atmospheric pressure
electrodes
atmospheric pressure
scattering
Optical losses
polyvinylbutyral
Aluminum Oxide
Temperature

Keywords

  • Double-sided nano-dimpled substrate PVB
  • Embedded Ag nanowires
  • Flexible organic light-emitting diodes
  • Internal and external light extraction
  • Scattering effect
  • TiO nanoparticle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Computer Science(all)
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Highly efficient flexible OLEDs based on double-sided nano-dimpled substrate (PVB) with embedded AgNWs and TiO 2 nanoparticle for internal and external light extraction",
abstract = "A light extraction structure and a flexible electrode have been developed to enhance the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). However, these structures are still influenced by optical losses, poor electrical stability, and low throughput, and are not suitable to be adopted into FOLEDs due to the surface roughness problem, low flexibility/adhesion, complicated process, and high temperature/pressure process. Here, to solve these problems, we demonstrate embedded Ag nanowires (AgNWs) in flexible substrate and highly flexible random nano pattern via easy/low-cost solution form process at atmospheric pressure and low temperature without any additional material. This study demonstrates an internal and external light extraction structure composed of double-sided nano-dimpled substrate PVB (DndP), which is directly fabricated on both sides of a flexible substrate (polyvinyl butyral, PVB) only in itself without additional material via the easy/low-cost transferring process using the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by an anodization process-based solution form at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. Therefore, because the DndP and the substrate are composed of the same material, PVB, there is no light loss between their interfaces. In addition, a high-refractive-index TiO 2 nanoparticle, for the scattering effect, and AgNWs, for electrode flexibility, are embedded into the DndP via the covering method using the solution form. Such structures exhibit extraordinary mechanical flexibility due to the AgNWs embedded in the PVB substrate. Therefore, FOLEDs using such structures can be well adapted to flexible/rollable/foldable displays and wearable application devices. Moreover, the corrugated surface of FOLEDs by such structures can improve the current flow through increased surface area of electrodes and extract the trapped light through the scattering effect (Rayleigh, Mie), reducing the total reflection and coupled photon in metal/dielectric. In addition, the FOLEDs with such structures show color/spectrum-stable property and independence of viewing angles owing to their random nature. The final green FOLEDs with DndP, embedded scattering TiO 2 nanoparticle, and embedded AgNWs&PEDOT:PSS demonstrate an outstanding EL efficiency enhancement ratio of 2.23 time via internal and external light extraction without electrical short.",
keywords = "Double-sided nano-dimpled substrate PVB, Embedded Ag nanowires, Flexible organic light-emitting diodes, Internal and external light extraction, Scattering effect, TiO nanoparticle",
author = "Bae, {Bong Han} and Sungwoo Jun and Kwon, {Min Sung} and Ju, {Byeong Kwon}",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
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doi = "10.1016/j.optmat.2019.04.007",
language = "English",
volume = "92",
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journal = "Optical Materials",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Highly efficient flexible OLEDs based on double-sided nano-dimpled substrate (PVB) with embedded AgNWs and TiO 2 nanoparticle for internal and external light extraction

AU - Bae, Bong Han

AU - Jun, Sungwoo

AU - Kwon, Min Sung

AU - Ju, Byeong Kwon

PY - 2019/6/1

Y1 - 2019/6/1

N2 - A light extraction structure and a flexible electrode have been developed to enhance the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). However, these structures are still influenced by optical losses, poor electrical stability, and low throughput, and are not suitable to be adopted into FOLEDs due to the surface roughness problem, low flexibility/adhesion, complicated process, and high temperature/pressure process. Here, to solve these problems, we demonstrate embedded Ag nanowires (AgNWs) in flexible substrate and highly flexible random nano pattern via easy/low-cost solution form process at atmospheric pressure and low temperature without any additional material. This study demonstrates an internal and external light extraction structure composed of double-sided nano-dimpled substrate PVB (DndP), which is directly fabricated on both sides of a flexible substrate (polyvinyl butyral, PVB) only in itself without additional material via the easy/low-cost transferring process using the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by an anodization process-based solution form at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. Therefore, because the DndP and the substrate are composed of the same material, PVB, there is no light loss between their interfaces. In addition, a high-refractive-index TiO 2 nanoparticle, for the scattering effect, and AgNWs, for electrode flexibility, are embedded into the DndP via the covering method using the solution form. Such structures exhibit extraordinary mechanical flexibility due to the AgNWs embedded in the PVB substrate. Therefore, FOLEDs using such structures can be well adapted to flexible/rollable/foldable displays and wearable application devices. Moreover, the corrugated surface of FOLEDs by such structures can improve the current flow through increased surface area of electrodes and extract the trapped light through the scattering effect (Rayleigh, Mie), reducing the total reflection and coupled photon in metal/dielectric. In addition, the FOLEDs with such structures show color/spectrum-stable property and independence of viewing angles owing to their random nature. The final green FOLEDs with DndP, embedded scattering TiO 2 nanoparticle, and embedded AgNWs&PEDOT:PSS demonstrate an outstanding EL efficiency enhancement ratio of 2.23 time via internal and external light extraction without electrical short.

AB - A light extraction structure and a flexible electrode have been developed to enhance the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). However, these structures are still influenced by optical losses, poor electrical stability, and low throughput, and are not suitable to be adopted into FOLEDs due to the surface roughness problem, low flexibility/adhesion, complicated process, and high temperature/pressure process. Here, to solve these problems, we demonstrate embedded Ag nanowires (AgNWs) in flexible substrate and highly flexible random nano pattern via easy/low-cost solution form process at atmospheric pressure and low temperature without any additional material. This study demonstrates an internal and external light extraction structure composed of double-sided nano-dimpled substrate PVB (DndP), which is directly fabricated on both sides of a flexible substrate (polyvinyl butyral, PVB) only in itself without additional material via the easy/low-cost transferring process using the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by an anodization process-based solution form at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. Therefore, because the DndP and the substrate are composed of the same material, PVB, there is no light loss between their interfaces. In addition, a high-refractive-index TiO 2 nanoparticle, for the scattering effect, and AgNWs, for electrode flexibility, are embedded into the DndP via the covering method using the solution form. Such structures exhibit extraordinary mechanical flexibility due to the AgNWs embedded in the PVB substrate. Therefore, FOLEDs using such structures can be well adapted to flexible/rollable/foldable displays and wearable application devices. Moreover, the corrugated surface of FOLEDs by such structures can improve the current flow through increased surface area of electrodes and extract the trapped light through the scattering effect (Rayleigh, Mie), reducing the total reflection and coupled photon in metal/dielectric. In addition, the FOLEDs with such structures show color/spectrum-stable property and independence of viewing angles owing to their random nature. The final green FOLEDs with DndP, embedded scattering TiO 2 nanoparticle, and embedded AgNWs&PEDOT:PSS demonstrate an outstanding EL efficiency enhancement ratio of 2.23 time via internal and external light extraction without electrical short.

KW - Double-sided nano-dimpled substrate PVB

KW - Embedded Ag nanowires

KW - Flexible organic light-emitting diodes

KW - Internal and external light extraction

KW - Scattering effect

KW - TiO nanoparticle

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