Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Modules by Scalable Fabrication and Interconnection Optimization

Mengjin Yang, Dong Hoe Kim, Talysa R. Klein, Zhen Li, Matthew O. Reese, Bertrand J. Tremolet De Villers, Joseph J. Berry, Maikel F.A.M. Van Hest, Kai Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

118 Citations (Scopus)


To push perovskite solar cell (PSC) technology toward practical applications, large-area perovskite solar modules with multiple subcells need to be developed by fully scalable deposition approaches. Here, we demonstrate a deposition scheme for perovskite module fabrication with spray coating of a TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL) and blade coating of both a perovskite absorber layer and a spiro-OMeTAD-based hole transport layer (HTL). The TiO2 ETL remaining in the interconnection between subcells significantly affects the module performance. Reducing the TiO2 thickness changes the interconnection contact from a Schottky diode to ohmic behavior. Owing to interconnection resistance reduction, the perovskite modules with a 10 nm TiO2 layer show enhanced performance mainly associated with an improved fill factor. Finally, we demonstrate a four-cell MA0.7FA0.3PbI3 perovskite module with a stabilized power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.6% measured from an aperture area of ∼10.36 cm2, corresponding to an active-area module PCE of 17.9% with a geometric fill factor of ∼87.3%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)322-328
Number of pages7
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Feb 9
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


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