Highly enhanced bactericidal effects of medium chain fatty acids (caprylic, capric, and lauric acid) combined with edible plant essential oils (carvacrol, eugenol, β-resorcylic acid, trans-cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and vanillin) against Escherichia coli O157: H7

S. A. Kim, Min-Suk Rhee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and essential oils (EOs) are known to be natural antimicrobials, but their combined effects have not been fully investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the bactericidal effects of various combined treatments of MCFAs [caprylic (CA), capric (CPA), and lauric acid (LRA)] and EOs [carvacrol (CAR), eugenol (EUG), β-resorcylic acid (RA), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), thymol (TM), and vanillin (VNL)]. Escherichia coli O157:H7, was treated with 1) control (2% ethanol), 2) MCFA alone, 3) EO alone, and 4) different combinations of MCFAs and EOs at 37 °C for 5 and 10 min. Synergistic bactericidal effects were observed with combined treatments; the log reduction in viable bacteria in response to the combined treatments was much greater than the sum of the effects of the two compounds applied individually. For example, individual treatment with 0.2 mM CPA (0.004%) and 0.4 mM RA (0.006%) for 5 min resulted in a negligible reduction in bacterial load (0.25 and 0.21 log reduction, respectively), whereas combined treatment at the same concentrations and for the same time reduced the bacterial population in the test sample to an undetectable level (initial population: 7.51 log CFU/ml; detection limit: 1 CFU/ml). The ranking of EOs showing the highest bacterial killing activities when combined with MCFAs was generally RA, CAR, TM > EUG > TC > VNL. All the antimicrobials used in this study are natural compounds that have been widely used in industry, so they are both consumer- and user-friendly. Combined treatment can overcome the disadvantages of MCFAs and EOs such as unpleasant odor and high cost because the required concentrations can be reduced. Our results indicate that the combined treatments used here could be successfully used to eliminate foodborne pathogens, significantly improving the microbiological safety of foods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4612
Pages (from-to)447-454
Number of pages8
JournalFood Control
Volume60
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Feb 1

Fingerprint

lauric acid
Thymol
Eugenol
decanoic acid
octanoic acid
Edible Plants
medium chain fatty acids
dodecanoic acid
Escherichia coli O157
Plant Oils
carvacrol
eugenol
antibacterial properties
vanillin
thymol
Volatile Oils
essential oils
Fatty Acids
Acids
acids

Keywords

  • Bactericidal effect
  • Combined treatment
  • Escherichia coli O157:H7
  • Essential oil
  • Medium chain fatty acid
  • Natural antimicrobial
  • Synergistic effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Biotechnology

Cite this

@article{e60ec4120a9c484a918453cd40044c6c,
title = "Highly enhanced bactericidal effects of medium chain fatty acids (caprylic, capric, and lauric acid) combined with edible plant essential oils (carvacrol, eugenol, β-resorcylic acid, trans-cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and vanillin) against Escherichia coli O157: H7",
abstract = "Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and essential oils (EOs) are known to be natural antimicrobials, but their combined effects have not been fully investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the bactericidal effects of various combined treatments of MCFAs [caprylic (CA), capric (CPA), and lauric acid (LRA)] and EOs [carvacrol (CAR), eugenol (EUG), β-resorcylic acid (RA), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), thymol (TM), and vanillin (VNL)]. Escherichia coli O157:H7, was treated with 1) control (2{\%} ethanol), 2) MCFA alone, 3) EO alone, and 4) different combinations of MCFAs and EOs at 37 °C for 5 and 10 min. Synergistic bactericidal effects were observed with combined treatments; the log reduction in viable bacteria in response to the combined treatments was much greater than the sum of the effects of the two compounds applied individually. For example, individual treatment with 0.2 mM CPA (0.004{\%}) and 0.4 mM RA (0.006{\%}) for 5 min resulted in a negligible reduction in bacterial load (0.25 and 0.21 log reduction, respectively), whereas combined treatment at the same concentrations and for the same time reduced the bacterial population in the test sample to an undetectable level (initial population: 7.51 log CFU/ml; detection limit: 1 CFU/ml). The ranking of EOs showing the highest bacterial killing activities when combined with MCFAs was generally RA, CAR, TM > EUG > TC > VNL. All the antimicrobials used in this study are natural compounds that have been widely used in industry, so they are both consumer- and user-friendly. Combined treatment can overcome the disadvantages of MCFAs and EOs such as unpleasant odor and high cost because the required concentrations can be reduced. Our results indicate that the combined treatments used here could be successfully used to eliminate foodborne pathogens, significantly improving the microbiological safety of foods.",
keywords = "Bactericidal effect, Combined treatment, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Essential oil, Medium chain fatty acid, Natural antimicrobial, Synergistic effect",
author = "Kim, {S. A.} and Min-Suk Rhee",
year = "2016",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.08.022",
language = "English",
volume = "60",
pages = "447--454",
journal = "Food Control",
issn = "0956-7135",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Highly enhanced bactericidal effects of medium chain fatty acids (caprylic, capric, and lauric acid) combined with edible plant essential oils (carvacrol, eugenol, β-resorcylic acid, trans-cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and vanillin) against Escherichia coli O157

T2 - H7

AU - Kim, S. A.

AU - Rhee, Min-Suk

PY - 2016/2/1

Y1 - 2016/2/1

N2 - Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and essential oils (EOs) are known to be natural antimicrobials, but their combined effects have not been fully investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the bactericidal effects of various combined treatments of MCFAs [caprylic (CA), capric (CPA), and lauric acid (LRA)] and EOs [carvacrol (CAR), eugenol (EUG), β-resorcylic acid (RA), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), thymol (TM), and vanillin (VNL)]. Escherichia coli O157:H7, was treated with 1) control (2% ethanol), 2) MCFA alone, 3) EO alone, and 4) different combinations of MCFAs and EOs at 37 °C for 5 and 10 min. Synergistic bactericidal effects were observed with combined treatments; the log reduction in viable bacteria in response to the combined treatments was much greater than the sum of the effects of the two compounds applied individually. For example, individual treatment with 0.2 mM CPA (0.004%) and 0.4 mM RA (0.006%) for 5 min resulted in a negligible reduction in bacterial load (0.25 and 0.21 log reduction, respectively), whereas combined treatment at the same concentrations and for the same time reduced the bacterial population in the test sample to an undetectable level (initial population: 7.51 log CFU/ml; detection limit: 1 CFU/ml). The ranking of EOs showing the highest bacterial killing activities when combined with MCFAs was generally RA, CAR, TM > EUG > TC > VNL. All the antimicrobials used in this study are natural compounds that have been widely used in industry, so they are both consumer- and user-friendly. Combined treatment can overcome the disadvantages of MCFAs and EOs such as unpleasant odor and high cost because the required concentrations can be reduced. Our results indicate that the combined treatments used here could be successfully used to eliminate foodborne pathogens, significantly improving the microbiological safety of foods.

AB - Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and essential oils (EOs) are known to be natural antimicrobials, but their combined effects have not been fully investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the bactericidal effects of various combined treatments of MCFAs [caprylic (CA), capric (CPA), and lauric acid (LRA)] and EOs [carvacrol (CAR), eugenol (EUG), β-resorcylic acid (RA), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), thymol (TM), and vanillin (VNL)]. Escherichia coli O157:H7, was treated with 1) control (2% ethanol), 2) MCFA alone, 3) EO alone, and 4) different combinations of MCFAs and EOs at 37 °C for 5 and 10 min. Synergistic bactericidal effects were observed with combined treatments; the log reduction in viable bacteria in response to the combined treatments was much greater than the sum of the effects of the two compounds applied individually. For example, individual treatment with 0.2 mM CPA (0.004%) and 0.4 mM RA (0.006%) for 5 min resulted in a negligible reduction in bacterial load (0.25 and 0.21 log reduction, respectively), whereas combined treatment at the same concentrations and for the same time reduced the bacterial population in the test sample to an undetectable level (initial population: 7.51 log CFU/ml; detection limit: 1 CFU/ml). The ranking of EOs showing the highest bacterial killing activities when combined with MCFAs was generally RA, CAR, TM > EUG > TC > VNL. All the antimicrobials used in this study are natural compounds that have been widely used in industry, so they are both consumer- and user-friendly. Combined treatment can overcome the disadvantages of MCFAs and EOs such as unpleasant odor and high cost because the required concentrations can be reduced. Our results indicate that the combined treatments used here could be successfully used to eliminate foodborne pathogens, significantly improving the microbiological safety of foods.

KW - Bactericidal effect

KW - Combined treatment

KW - Escherichia coli O157:H7

KW - Essential oil

KW - Medium chain fatty acid

KW - Natural antimicrobial

KW - Synergistic effect

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84940426315&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84940426315&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.08.022

DO - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.08.022

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84940426315

VL - 60

SP - 447

EP - 454

JO - Food Control

JF - Food Control

SN - 0956-7135

M1 - 4612

ER -