History of bioelectrical study and the electrophysiology of the primo vascular system

Sang Hyun Park, Eung Hwi Kim, Ho Jong Chang, Seung-Zhoo Yoon, Ji Woong Yoon, Seong Jin Cho, Yeon Hee Ryu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background. Primo vascular system is a new anatomical structure whose research results have reported the possibility of a new circulatory system similar to the blood vascular system and cells. Electrophysiology, which measures and analyzes bioelectrical signals tissues and cells, is an important research area for investigating the function of tissues and cells. The bioelectrical study of the primo vascular system has been reported by using modern techniques since the early 1960s by Bonghan Kim. This paper reviews the research result of the electrophysiological study of the primo vascular system for the discussion of the circulatory function. We hope it would help to study the electrophysiology of the primo vascular system for researchers. This paper will use the following exchangeable expressions: Kyungrak system = Bonghan system = Bonghan circulatory system = primo vascular system = primo system; Bonghan corpuscle = primo node; Bonghan duct = primo vessel. We think that objective descriptions of reviewed papers are more important than unified expressions when citing the papers. That said, this paper will unify the expressions of the primo vascular system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number486823
JournalEvidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Aug 5


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this