Human-centered design and evaluation of haptic cueing for teleoperation of multiple mobile robots

Hyoung Il Son, Antonio Franchi, Lewis L. Chuang, Junsuk Kim, Heinrich H. Bülthoff, Paolo Robuffo Giordano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we investigate the effect of haptic cueing on a human operator's performance in the field of bilateral teleoperation of multiple mobile robots, particularly multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Two aspects of human performance are deemed important in this area, namely, the maneuverability of mobile robots and the perceptual sensitivity of the remote environment. We introduce metrics that allow us to address these aspects in two psychophysical studies, which are reported here. Three fundamental haptic cue types were evaluated. The Force cue conveys information on the proximity of the commanded trajectory to obstacles in the remote environment. The Velocity cue represents the mismatch between the commanded and actual velocities of the UAVs and can implicitly provide a rich amount of information regarding the actual behavior of the UAVs. Finally, the Velocity+Force cue is a linear combination of the two. Our experimental results show that, while maneuverability is best supported by the Force cue feedback, perceptual sensitivity is best served by the Velocity cue feedback. In addition, we show that large gains in the haptic feedbacks do not always guarantee an enhancement in the teleoperator's performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)597-609
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Apr


  • Bilateral teleoperation
  • Maneuverability
  • Multirobot systems
  • Perception
  • Psychophysics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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