Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Bottled Waters Sourced from Bedrock Aquifers in South Korea: Evaluation of Water Type and Natural Background Levels

Kyung Jin Lee, Soonyoung Yu, Kyoung Ho Kim, Kyoung Gu Kang, Suh Yung Moon, Moon Su Kim, Seong Taek Yun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The hydrogeochemical properties of bottled waters (n = 37) were examined to evaluate the factors governing their quality and to suggest the natural background levels (NBLs) of groundwater. The bottled waters were sourced from bedrock aquifers of various geological types and analyzed for 14 physicochemical parameters and 48 trace elements. The bottled waters mainly consisted of the Ca-HCO3 type with low TDS (mean = 158.4 mg/L; n = 33) regardless of geological type, indicating low degrees of water–rock interaction. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that these waters were characterized by the dissolution of calcite and Ca-plagioclase (PC1) and the weathering of Na-plagioclase and cation exchange (PC2). The PCA results with low concentrations of TDS and F (mean = 0.4 mg/L) revealed that the waters represent slightly mineralized groundwater, probably because the boreholes were installed in fractured aquifers, avoiding high F concentrations (>1.5 mg/L). The 90th percentiles for the Ca-HCO3 type bottled waters were proposed as the NBLs for Korean groundwater for 11 major elements and 20 trace elements. The NBLs of NO3 (7.9 mg/L) and F (0.9 mg/L) were similar to the 90th percentiles of EU bottled waters (n = 1785), implying the suggested NBLs are acceptable for groundwater quality management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1457
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Volume14
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May 1

Keywords

  • bedrock aquifer
  • bottled water
  • hydrogeochemistry
  • natural background levels (NBLs)
  • South Korea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Biochemistry
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology

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