Immunotoxicity of silicon dioxide nanoparticles with different sizes and electrostatic charge

Jae Hyun Kim, Cheol Su Kim, Rosa Mistica Coles Ignacio, Dong Heui Kim, Ma Easter Joy Sajo, Eun Ho Maeng, Xu Feng Qi, Seong Eun Park, Yu Ri Kim, Meyoung-Kon Kim, Kyu Jae Lee, Soo Ki Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in the biomedical field, such as in drug delivery and gene therapy. However, little is known about the biological effects and potential hazards of SiO2. Herein, the colloidal SiO2 NPs with two different sizes (20 nm and 100 nm) and different charges (L-arginine modified: SiO2 EN20[R], SiO2 EN100[R]; and negative: SiO2 EN20[−], SiO2 EN100[−]) were orally administered (750 mg/kg/day) in female C57BL/6 mice for 14 days. Assessments of immunotoxicity include hematology profiling, reactive oxygen species generation and their antioxidant effect, stimulation assays for B- and T-lymphocytes, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, and cytokine profiling. In vitro toxicity was also investigated in the RAW 264.7 cell line. When the cellularity of mouse spleen was evaluated, there was an overall decrease in the proliferation of B- and T-cells for all the groups fed with SiO2 NPs. Specifically, the SiO2 EN20(−) NPs showed the most pronounced reduction. In addition, the nitric oxide production and NK cell activity in SiO2 NP-fed mice were significantly suppressed. Moreover, there was a decrease in the serum concentration of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12 (p70), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ. To elucidate the cytotoxicity mechanism of SiO2 in vivo, an in vitro study using the RAW 264.7 cell line was performed. Both the size and charge of SiO2 using murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells decreased cell viability dose-dependently. Collectively, our data indicate that different sized and charged SiO2 NPs would cause differential immunotoxicity. Interestingly, the small-sized and negatively charged SiO2 NPs showed the most potent in vivo immunotoxicity by way of suppressing the proliferation of lymphocytes, depressing the killing activity of NK cells, and decreasing proinflammatory cytokine production, thus leading to immunosuppression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-193
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec 15

Keywords

  • Cytokines
  • Immunosuppression
  • Immunotoxicity
  • Nanoparticle
  • Oxidative stress
  • Silicon dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry

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  • Cite this

    Kim, J. H., Kim, C. S., Ignacio, R. M. C., Kim, D. H., Sajo, M. E. J., Maeng, E. H., Qi, X. F., Park, S. E., Kim, Y. R., Kim, M-K., Lee, K. J., & Kim, S. K. (2014). Immunotoxicity of silicon dioxide nanoparticles with different sizes and electrostatic charge. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 9, 183-193. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S57934