Possible links between periodontitis and various cardiometabolic and autoimmune diseases have been advocated on the basis of chronic inflammation or oxidative stress. However, the association between periodontitis and thyroid dysfunction is under-researched. Participants without previous thyroid disease or ongoing thyroid-related medication were included from a nationwide population-level survey. Participants were categorized into tertiles of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (first tertile < 1.76 mIU/L; second tertile 1.76–2.83 mIU/L; third tertile > 2.83 mIU/L), and periodontal condition was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index. Of the total of 5468 participants, 1423 had periodontitis (26%). A significant difference in the weighted prevalence of periodontitis according to TSH tertiles was observed, with the highest prevalence in the first tertile (26.5%) and the lowest prevalence in the third tertile (20.9%, p = 0.003). Subjects in the first TSH tertile had higher odds for periodontitis than those in the third tertile (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.10–1.68; p for trend = 0.005) after adjusting for covariates. This association was consistent across subgroups and within sensitivity analyses among subjects without specific factors affecting thyroid function or diseases reported to be related to periodontitis. The present study demonstrated that low TSH levels were associated with significantly higher odds for periodontitis.
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