Although the technique of coronary stenting has remarkably improved long-term results in recent years, (sub)acute thrombosis and late restenosis still remain problems to be solved. Metallic surfaces were regarded as thrombogenic, due to their positive surface charges, and stenosis resulted from the activation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, a unique surface modification method for metallic surfaces was studied using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) technique. The method included the deposition of thin gold layers, the chemisorption of disulfides containing functional groups, and the subsequent coupling of PEG derivatives or heparin utilizing the functional groups of the disulfides. All the reactions were confirmed by ATR-FTIR and XPS. The surface modified with sulfonated PEG (Au-S-PEG-SO3) or heparinized PEG (Au-S-PEG-Hep) exhibited decreased static contact angles and therefore increased hydrophilicity to a great extent, which resulted from the coupling of PEG and the ionic groups attached. In vitro fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion onto the Au-S-PEG-SO3 or Au-S-PEG-Hep surfaces decreased to a great extent, indicating enhanced blood compatibility. This decreased interaction of the modified surfaces should be attributed to the non-adhesive property of PEG and the synergistic effect of sulfonated PEG. The effect of the surface modification on the adhesion and proliferation of VSMCs was also investigated. The modified Au-S-PEG-SO3 or Au-S-PEG-Hep surfaces also exhibited decreased adhesion of VSMCs, while the deposited gold layer itself was effective. The enhanced blood compatibility and the decreased adhesion of VSMCs on the modified metallic surfaces may help to decrease thrombus formation and suppress restenosis. It would therefore be very useful to apply these modified surfaces to stents for improved functions. A long-term in vivo study using animal models is currently under way.
- Metallic surface modification
- Protein/platelet adhesion
- Self-assembled monolayer technology
- Smooth muscle cell adhesion
- Sulfonated PEG
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering