Improved modification direction methods

Hyong Joong Kim, C. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Wang, X. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The original exploiting modification direction (EMD) method proposed by Zhang and Wang is a novel data hiding technique which can achieve large embedding capacity with less distortion. The original EMD method can hide (2n+1)-ary numbers by modifying at most one least-significant bit (LSB) of n pixel values. The proposed methods in this paper, 2-EMD and EMD-2, modify at most two pixels of the LSB values. Efficiency of the proposed methods is shown theoretically and through experiments. The 2-EMD and EMD-2 can hide even larger numbers than the EMD with similar distortion under the same conditions. This paper shows that the EMD-2 is much better than the EMD, and slightly better than 2-EMD when n is 3, 4 and 5. The way to generate basis vector can be used for the generalization of the n-EMD and EMD-n where n > 1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-325
Number of pages7
JournalComputers and Mathematics with Applications
Volume60
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jul 1

Fingerprint

Pixels
Experiments
Pixel
Data Hiding

Keywords

  • Data hiding
  • Number theory
  • Steganography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Computational Mathematics

Cite this

Improved modification direction methods. / Kim, Hyong Joong; Kim, C.; Choi, Y.; Wang, S.; Zhang, X.

In: Computers and Mathematics with Applications, Vol. 60, No. 2, 01.07.2010, p. 319-325.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kim, Hyong Joong ; Kim, C. ; Choi, Y. ; Wang, S. ; Zhang, X. / Improved modification direction methods. In: Computers and Mathematics with Applications. 2010 ; Vol. 60, No. 2. pp. 319-325.
@article{0cf128981f35429ebc588de5051042e4,
title = "Improved modification direction methods",
abstract = "The original exploiting modification direction (EMD) method proposed by Zhang and Wang is a novel data hiding technique which can achieve large embedding capacity with less distortion. The original EMD method can hide (2n+1)-ary numbers by modifying at most one least-significant bit (LSB) of n pixel values. The proposed methods in this paper, 2-EMD and EMD-2, modify at most two pixels of the LSB values. Efficiency of the proposed methods is shown theoretically and through experiments. The 2-EMD and EMD-2 can hide even larger numbers than the EMD with similar distortion under the same conditions. This paper shows that the EMD-2 is much better than the EMD, and slightly better than 2-EMD when n is 3, 4 and 5. The way to generate basis vector can be used for the generalization of the n-EMD and EMD-n where n > 1.",
keywords = "Data hiding, Number theory, Steganography",
author = "Kim, {Hyong Joong} and C. Kim and Y. Choi and S. Wang and X. Zhang",
year = "2010",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.camwa.2010.01.006",
language = "English",
volume = "60",
pages = "319--325",
journal = "Computers and Mathematics with Applications",
issn = "0898-1221",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Improved modification direction methods

AU - Kim, Hyong Joong

AU - Kim, C.

AU - Choi, Y.

AU - Wang, S.

AU - Zhang, X.

PY - 2010/7/1

Y1 - 2010/7/1

N2 - The original exploiting modification direction (EMD) method proposed by Zhang and Wang is a novel data hiding technique which can achieve large embedding capacity with less distortion. The original EMD method can hide (2n+1)-ary numbers by modifying at most one least-significant bit (LSB) of n pixel values. The proposed methods in this paper, 2-EMD and EMD-2, modify at most two pixels of the LSB values. Efficiency of the proposed methods is shown theoretically and through experiments. The 2-EMD and EMD-2 can hide even larger numbers than the EMD with similar distortion under the same conditions. This paper shows that the EMD-2 is much better than the EMD, and slightly better than 2-EMD when n is 3, 4 and 5. The way to generate basis vector can be used for the generalization of the n-EMD and EMD-n where n > 1.

AB - The original exploiting modification direction (EMD) method proposed by Zhang and Wang is a novel data hiding technique which can achieve large embedding capacity with less distortion. The original EMD method can hide (2n+1)-ary numbers by modifying at most one least-significant bit (LSB) of n pixel values. The proposed methods in this paper, 2-EMD and EMD-2, modify at most two pixels of the LSB values. Efficiency of the proposed methods is shown theoretically and through experiments. The 2-EMD and EMD-2 can hide even larger numbers than the EMD with similar distortion under the same conditions. This paper shows that the EMD-2 is much better than the EMD, and slightly better than 2-EMD when n is 3, 4 and 5. The way to generate basis vector can be used for the generalization of the n-EMD and EMD-n where n > 1.

KW - Data hiding

KW - Number theory

KW - Steganography

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77955711748&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77955711748&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.camwa.2010.01.006

DO - 10.1016/j.camwa.2010.01.006

M3 - Article

VL - 60

SP - 319

EP - 325

JO - Computers and Mathematics with Applications

JF - Computers and Mathematics with Applications

SN - 0898-1221

IS - 2

ER -