Improved modification direction methods

H. J. Kim, C. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Wang, X. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

80 Citations (Scopus)


The original exploiting modification direction (EMD) method proposed by Zhang and Wang is a novel data hiding technique which can achieve large embedding capacity with less distortion. The original EMD method can hide (2n+1)-ary numbers by modifying at most one least-significant bit (LSB) of n pixel values. The proposed methods in this paper, 2-EMD and EMD-2, modify at most two pixels of the LSB values. Efficiency of the proposed methods is shown theoretically and through experiments. The 2-EMD and EMD-2 can hide even larger numbers than the EMD with similar distortion under the same conditions. This paper shows that the EMD-2 is much better than the EMD, and slightly better than 2-EMD when n is 3, 4 and 5. The way to generate basis vector can be used for the generalization of the n-EMD and EMD-n where n > 1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-325
Number of pages7
JournalComputers and Mathematics with Applications
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jul


  • Data hiding
  • Number theory
  • Steganography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Computational Mathematics


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