In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite-coated polyetheretherketone biocomposites created by cold spray technology

Jae Hyup Lee, Hae Lin Jang, Kyung Mee Lee, Hae Ri Baek, Kyoungsuk Jin, Kug Sun Hong, Jun Hong Noh, Hyun Kyung Lee

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99 Citations (Scopus)


Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a material that is widely used in medicine because its mechanical properties show excellent similarity to those of human bone. However, because it is bioinert, PEEK shows limited ability to bind to natural bone tissue. Here, we applied a cold spray method to make a hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated PEEK hybrid material and evaluated its osteointegration in vitro and in vivo. With the cold spray method, the HA coating formed a homogeneous layer and adhered strongly to the PEEK disk implant. When the material was tested in vitro, early cell adhesion and viability improved. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium concentration were also higher in cells cultured on HA-coated PEEK disks. In addition, the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, such as ALP, bone sialoprotein and runt-related transcription factor 2, increased in these cells. For the in vivo test, we designed and implanted HA-coated PEEK cylinders into a rabbit ilium model by the press-fit method. The bone-implant contact ratio, trabecular number and trabecular thickness were determined using either three-dimensional microcomputed tomography or general two-dimensional histomorphometric analysis. This report demonstrates that the HA coating on the PEEK implant added with the cold spray method increased biocompatibility in vitro and promoted osteointegration in vivo, which suggests that the HA coating may improve the biofunctionality of various medical devices used in clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6177-6187
Number of pages11
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Apr 1
Externally publishedYes



  • Cold spray coating
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Implant
  • Osteointegration
  • Polyetheretherketone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology

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