Increased expression of interleukin 36 in chronic rhinosinusitis and its contribution to chemokine secretion and increased epithelial permeability

Young Ho Joo, Ha Kyun Kim, In Hak Choi, Hae Min Han, Ki Jeong Lee, Tae Hoon Kim, Sang Hag Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: IL-36 family, a recently reported member of the IL-1 cytokine family, plays an essential role in nonspecific innate immune response to infection. This study aims at investigating the expression of IL-36 family members (α, β, and γ) in normal and inflammatory sinus mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), their effects on chemokine secretion and on the barrier function of epithelial and endothelial cells, and the effect of Toll-like receptors on the expression of IL-36 in epithelial cells. Material and methods: The expression of IL-36 family in normal and inflammatory sinus mucosa, the production of chemokines or the expression levels of IL-36 family in epithelial cells treated with IL-36 family members or stimulated with TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, or TLR7/8 agonists were measured with real time PCR, ELISA, immunohistochemistry, or Western blot. The epithelial and endothelial permeability, and transendothelial leukocyte migration were investigated using cultured epithelial and endothelial cells. Results: IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ were localized in epithelial cells of sinonasal mucosa. Their levels increased in inflammatory mucosa of CRS patients and are up-regulated by TLR3, TLR4, or TLR5 agonists. IL-36α, or IL-36γ induced CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL3 production. Epithelial and endothelial permeability, transendothelial leukocyte migration were increased in cells treated with IL-36α, IL-36β, or IL-36γ. Conclusions: These results suggest that IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ localized in superficial epithelium may act as a responder to microbial and nonmicrobial elements through TLR and subsequently produce CXC chemokines, playing an interplay between innate and adaptive immune response.

Original languageEnglish
Article number154798
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan


  • Chemokines
  • Epithelial permeability
  • IL-36α
  • IL-36β
  • IL-36γ
  • TLR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Hematology


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