Presence of organic and inorganic acids influences the release rates of trace metals (TMs) bound in contaminated soil systems. This study aimed to investigate the influence of bioenergy waste biochar, derived from Gliricidia sepium (GBC), on the proton and ligand-induced bioavailability of Pb and Cu in a shooting range soil (17,066 mg Pb and 1134 mg Cu per kg soil) in the presence of inorganic (sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric) and organic acids (acetic, citric, and oxalic). Release rates of Pb and Cu in the shooting range soil were determined under different acid concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mM) and in the presence/absence of GBC (10% by weight of soil). The dissolution rates of Pb and Cu increased with increasing acid concentrations. Lead was preferentially released (2.79 × 10− 13 to 8.86 × 10− 13 mol m− 2 s− 1) than Cu (1.07 × 10− 13 to 1.02 × 10− 13 mol m− 2 s− 1) which could be due to the excessive Pb concentrations in soil. However, the addition of GBC to soil reduced Pb and Cu dissolution rates to a greater extent of 10.0 to 99.5% and 15.6 to 99.5%, respectively, under various acid concentrations. The increased pH in the medium and different adsorption mechanisms, including electrostatic attractions, surface diffusion, ion exchange, precipitation, and complexation could immobilize Pb and Cu released by the proton and ligands in GBC amended soil. Overall, GBC could be utilized as an effective soil amendment to immobilize Pb and Cu in shooting range soil even under the influence of soil acidity.
- Trace metal release
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal