Influence of Particle Velocity of Copper on Emitter Contact by Cold-Spray Method

Byungjun Kang, Kyung Dong Lee, Jong gun Lee, Jae Wook Choi, Suk Goo Yoon, Yoon Mook Kang, Haeseok Lee, Donghwan Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we investigated cold-sprayed copper as a front contact for crystalline silicon solar cells. Copper powder was deposited on a monocrystalline silicon wafer with variation of the particle velocity during deposition. The particle velocity was varied by varying the heating temperature from 250 to 400 °C using a gas pressure of 0.45 MPa. The particle velocities were calculated using empirical equations, and were found to increase with an increase in the carrier gas temperature. Grid patterns were formed on a phosphorus-doped n-type emitter of a p-type silicon substrate. The electrode thickness increased with increasing particle velocity. The electrical properties of the grids were evaluated using the transfer length method. The specific contact resistance of the n-type emitter was in the range of 2.6-26.4 mΩ-cm2. Damage to the p-n junction was investigated via minority carrier lifetime measurement of the substrate. The copper-silicon interface was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. The contact properties were affected by the interface conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)465-472
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Thermal Spray Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Feb 1


  • cold-spray
  • contact resistance
  • copper
  • particle velocity
  • phosphorus emitter
  • solar cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

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